U S J I G S 2: SEATTLE AND DC NONPROFIT
The US JIGS 2 project is part
of the JIGS 2 project led by Yutaka Tsujinaka of the
University of Tsukuba (see below). In this project, we
conducted surveys of civil society groups (including both nonprofit
organizations and also neighborhood groups) in Seattle and
Washington DC. I am joined in this project by
Steven Rathgeb Smith, Professor of Public Affairs and
Director of the Nancy Bell Evans Center,
Evans School of Public Affairs (UW). Partnering with community
nonprofits is a central goal of the Seattle survey. We were
fortunate to be supported by a distinguished Board of
Advisors for the project. We conducted the Seattle
survey in 2009 (actually, King County registered groups). We
received 1227 complete responses (30.8%) and 274 partial
responses (6.9%) to an extensive questionnaire. The Urban
Institute conducted the DC survey for us from January 2010
to July 2010. The Urban Institute team was led by Carol
DeVita, and we worked closely with Elizabeth Boris. Steven
Rathgeb Smith, Yutaka Tsujinaka, and I hosted a conference
at Georgetown University on the topic of "Nonprofits and
Advocacy," and organized panels on the theme at ARNOVA, APSA,
Steven Rathgeb Smith
C O M P A R A T I V E C I V I L
S O C I E T Y: J I G S 2
The US JIGS 2 project stands on its own.
However, it should also be appreciated in the context of the
overall JIGS research project, which I'll introduce below
through a few FAQs.
What is JIGS?
JIGS is the acronym for a series of broad surveys of civil
society organizations led by Yutaka Tsujinaka of the
University of Tsukuba in Japan conducted in 10 countries
The scope of the survey is of a broad range of associations,
including business associations, advocacy groups, social
welfare groups, internationally-oriented groups, etc. The
survey instrument is a detailed questionnaire with 39
questions and over 200 sub questions about organizational
features, history, resources, objectives, scale, scope and
relationship with political actors. Nearly 10,000 groups
have completed the surveys in target countries, with
impressive return rates in many countries (e.g. 38.5% in
Japan and 47.4% in Russia). The only comparable surveys are
the Johns Hopkins University Comparative Nonprofit Sector,
but the JIGS surveys complement these surveys nicely in
several ways. First, the JIGS methodology also surveys
groups that do not have official government status. Second,
the JIGS survey instrument provides more detailed
information about the groups. Third, the JIGS survey results
allow for more detailed statistical analysis, because scores
across variables are associated with an identified group.
Finally, funding has been secured for a second set of JIGS
surveys which will provide important longitudinal data
What is 10-10-10,000?
The JIGS team has conducted surveys in 10 countries over a
10 year period and collected data from about 10,000
JIGS leader Yutaka Tsujinaka
The JIGS research team aims to investigate civil society
organizations and interest groups as independent and
dependent variables across a range of research questions.
Surveys have been conducted in ten countries: Japan (1997),
Korea (1997), USA (1999), Germany (2000), China (2001-02,
and 2004-04), Turkey (2003-04), Russia (2003-04), the
Philippines (2004-05), Brazil (2005-06), and Bangladesh
(planned 2006-07). In each country, there were at least two
survey sites, the capital city and another region (e.g.
Tokyo and Ibaraki prefecture in Japan; Beijing, Xianju and
Heilongjiang in China; Washington DC and North Carolina in
the USA). Data has been collected from all these states
(except Bangladesh), and analyzed for 7 of the countries.
collection of JIGS data is not an end in itself but a means
to produce research results. The JIGS team members have a
rich publishing history.
Several books and
numerous articles and edited volume chapters have come out
from the first wave of the JIGS project. The place to start
Yutaka, ed. 2002. Gendai nihon-no shimin shakai, rieki
dantai (Modern Japanese Civil Society and Interest
Groups), Tokyo: Bokutakusha, ISBN4-8332-2319. 辻中豊 編著
『現代日本の市民社会・利益団体』 木鐸社、2002年 The
book has been translated into Korean. There is also a second
volume on Korean civil society, co-edited by Tsujinaka and
Jaeho Yeom. 辻中豊・廉載鎬 編著
『現代韓国の市民社会・利益団体――日韓比較による体制移行の研究』 木鐸社、 2004年.
I also used JIGS data in my
Japan's Dual Civil Society book.
For more details
on this ambitious project, see the project website: