Kamchatka—A very dynamic landscape

The Russian Far East has over 30 active volcanoes. In 1999 I explored one of the more remote ones (Mt. Tolbachik) as part of a landscape-level study of the recent impacts of this volcano.

burnt forest gound covered in foliage
The 1974 tephra eruption buried the birch forest. The primary colonist, as in Iceland, is a species of Leymus that stabilizes the scoria.