Table 1: The coevolution of global politics and economics

Long Cycles World Powers Date K-Waves Global leading sectors
LC1 Northern Sung 930 K1 Printing and paper
    990 K2 National market
LC2 Southern Sung 1060 K3 Fiscal framework
    1120 K4 Maritime trade expansion
LC3 (Genoa) 1190 K5 Champagne Fairs
    1250 K6 Black Sea trade
LC4 (Venice) 1300 K7 Galley fleets
    1350 K8 Pepper
LC5 Portugal 1420 K9 Guinea gold
    1492 K10 Spices
LC6 Dutch Republic 1540 K11 Baltic trade
    1580 K12 Asian trade
LC7 Britain I 1640 K13 American plantations
    1680 K14 Amerasian trade
LC8 Britain II 1740 K15 Cotton, iron
    1792 K16 Railroads
LC9 USA 1850 K17 Electric power, steel
    1914 K18 Electronics, motor vehicles
LC10   1973 K19 Information industries
    2026 K20  
Based on Modelski and Thompson, 1996: 137; Table 8.5.