Noun Clauses/Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)

 

Tense Harmony or Sequencing

(except for a few exceptions*, the following changes are made when reporting quoted speech)

 

Quoted speech

Later reporting

present tense verb

simple past

present continuous

past continuous

present perfect

simple past

past perfect

 

past perfect

simple future (will)

would

future (be going to)

was/were going to

modals:

can

may (possibility)

may (permission)

will

might

must

have to

should

ought to

shall

shall

 

could

might

could

would

might

had to

had to

should

ought to

would (future)

should (ask for advice)

imperative

infinitive

yes/no question

if + noun clause

 

Note:

She says, "I wash my hair every day."

She says she washes her hair every day.

She has said, "I wash my hair every day."

She has said that she washes her hair every day.

She will say, "I wash my hair every day."

She will say that she washes her hair every day.

 

*Exceptions:

 

 

 

Reported Speech

 

Changes in time and place words

 

 

now

today

tomorrow

yesterday

next month

next year

last month

last year

in two days weeks)

five days ago

five weeks ago

here

then, at that time

that day

the following day, the next day, a day later

the previous day, the day before

the following month, the next month, a month later

the following year, the next, year, a year later

the month before, the previous month, the preceding month

the year before, the previous year, the preceding year

two days from then, two weeks from then

five days before, five days earlier

five weeks before, five weeks earlier

there



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Copyright 1997