PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES

-Ing and -Ed

related to emotive verbs

 

 

Past participles (-ed) are used to say how people feel.

 

-ED participle refers to the experiencer (the one feeling the emotion)

Present participles (-ing) are used to describe the people or things that cause the feelings.

 

-Ing participle refers to the actor (the one/thing causing the emotion)

 

The lesson interests Anne.

Anne is very interested in the lesson.

The lesson is interesting (to Anne).

 

Sports interest Max.

Max is interested in sports.

Heís a very interested basketball fan.

Sports are interesting (to Max).

One very interesting sport is basketball.

 

The movie bored Bob.

Bob was bored by the movie.

Bib didnít enjoy the movie because it was boring.

 

Slapstick comedy doesn't amuse Corin.

Corin is not amused by slapstick comedy.

He is an unamused victim.

Slapstick isn't amusing (to Corin).

However, she does like other amusing forms of comedy.

Johnís loud stereo annoys his neighbors.

Johnís neighbors are annoyed by his loud stereo.

Several annoyed neighbors complained to the manager.

Johnís loud stereo is annoying (to his neighbors).

They have had enough annoying noise for one weekend.

 

Other participial adjectives of this type

 

amazed

amused

annoyed

bored

charmed

confused

convincing

damaged

depressed

disappointed

embarrassed

excited

amazing

amusing

annoying

boring

charming

confusing

convincing

damaging

depressing

disappointing

embarrassing

exciting

exhausted

fascinated

frightened

frustrated

interested

puzzled

relaxed

satisfied

shocked

terrified

tired

thrilled

exhausting

fascinating

frightening

frustrating

interesting

puzzling

relaxing

satisfying

shocking

terrifying

tiring

thrilling

 

Other aspects of active and passive participles

(from Swanís Practical English Usage)

When -ing forms are used like adjectives or adverbs, they have similar meanings to active verbs.

falling leaves

a meat-eating animal

She walked out smiling.

(= leaves that fall)

(= an animal that eats meat)

(= She was smiling)

 

Most past participles have passive meanings when they are used like adjectives or adverbs.

a broken heart.

He lived alone, forgotten by everybody.

(= a heart that has been broken)

(= He had been forgotten by everybody.)

Exceptions: active past participles

 

A few intransitive verbs have past participles that can be used as adjectives with active meanings, especially before nouns.

a fallen leaf

advanced students

 

 

developed countries

increased activity

vanished civilizations

a retired general

(=a leaf that has fallen)

(=students who have advanced to a high level, not students who have been advanced...)

a grown-up daughter

and escaped prisoner

faded colors

swollen ankles

Some more past participles can only be used in this way in phrases with adverbs.

a well-read person

a much-traveled man

recently-arrived immigrants

 

(but not a read person)

 

Worry can be used actively and passively.

I worry about you.

m worried about you.



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