LOGICAL CONNECTORS

LOGICAL CONNECTORS

 

Logical connectors are used to join or connect two ideas that have a particular relationship. These relationships can be: sequential (time), reason and purpose, adversative (opposition and/or unexpected result), condition.

 Within each category, the words used to join the ideas or clauses are used differently, with different grammar and punctuation.

Subordinating conjunctions

Introduce adverb clauses

Either the dependent clause or the independent clause may come first in the sentence, with no change in meaning

ex: Before he came, we didn't have a physical education teacher.

We didn't have a physical education teacher before he came.

 

Prepositions

Is followed by a noun or noun phrase

Either clause may appear first

ex: He didn't come to class due to his illness.

 

Transitions and Conjunctive adverbs

Joins two sentences separated by a period or two clauses separated by a semi-colon.

Only one possible order of the sentences

The transition may appear clause initial, clause final, or between the subject and verb of the second sentence.

ex: He was sick. Nevertheless, he came to class.

 

Conjunctions

One possible order

A comma is used before the conjunction

In academic writing, do not begin a sentence with a conjunction

ex: He didn't do his homework, so he didn't pass the class.

 

 

Sequential (Time)

 

 

Subordinating conjunctions

until

after

before

when

while

since

once

whenever

as soon as

as long as

by the time

Prepositions

during

after

before

since

until

upon

Conjunctive adverbs and transitions

then

next

after that

following that

before that

afterwards

meanwhile

beforehand

Conjunctions

and then

 

Causal (Reason and Purpose, Cause and Effect)

 

Subordinating conjunctions

because

as

since

inasmuch as

now that

as long as

such...that

[such a/an + adjective + noun + that]

so...that

[so +adjective or adverb + that]

[so much/many/little/few + noun + that]

 

expressing purpose

so that

in order that

 

Prepositions

because of

due to

 

in order to

 

Conjunctive adverbs and transitions

therefore

consequently

Conjunctions

so

 

 

Adversative (unexpected result, contrast, opposition)

 

Subordinating conjunctions

even though

although

though

(in spite of the fact that)

 

while

whereas

where

Prepositions

despite

in spite of

 

Conjunctive adverbs and transitions

however

nonetheless

nevertheless

 

on the other hand

in contrast

 

on the contrary

 

Conjunctions

but...anyway

but...still

yet...still

but

 

 

Condition

 

Subordinating conjunctions

if

unless

even if

providing (that)

provided (that)

in case

whether or not

only if*

 

*verb inversion, no comma if only if appears first in the sentence

 

Prepositions

 

Conjunctive adverbs and transitions

otherwise

Conjunctions

or (else)


Reduced Adverb Clauses

 

Rule: If the subject of the adverb clause and the main clause are the same, the adverb clause may be reduced.

 

To reduce, drop the subject and the verb be in the adverb clause.

  1. I had an accident while I was driving past the REI climbing rock.
  2. I had an accident while driving past the REI climbing rock.
  3. Even though she was hungry, she didnít eat the pie.
  4. Even though hungry, she didnít eat the pie.
  5.  

If there is not be verb, change the adverb clause verb to the present participle.

  • Before she owned a pet, she was afraid of dogs.
  • Before owning a pet, she was afraid of dogs.
  •  

    You may omit the subordinating conjunction (while) with simultaneous actions.

  • While camping at Mt. Rainier, I saw several mountain goats.
  • Camping at Mt. Rainier, I saw several mountain goats.
  •  

    Because is always omitted in reduced clauses.

  • Because she didnít get accepted to the university, she is going to attend community college.
  • Not being accepted to the university, she is going to attend community college.
  •  

    You may also omit being in the reduced clause.

  • Being dyslexic, he doesnít like to read in public.
  • Dyslexic, he doesnít like to read in public.
  • Remember: Only sentences in which the subjects of both clauses are the same maybe be reduced.

  • While I was eating corn on the cob, my tooth fell out. This adverb clause cannot be reduced because the subject of the adverb clause is not the same as the subject of the main clause.


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