Exam 2 Practice

1. The process by which the lens changes shape to focus the image of an object on the retina is called:

a. adaptation

*b. accommodation

c. transduction

d. feature detection


2. Amplitude is to brightness as wavelength is to:

a. frequency.

b. accommodation.

c. timbre.

*d. hue.

e. intensity.


3. The constant quivering movements of the eye are necessary in order to:

a. facilitate the process of accommodation.

b. illuminate the entire fovea.

*c. minimize sensory adaptation.

d. do all of the above.


4. Sensory transduction refers to the process:

a. of organizing and interpreting sensory information.

b. by which living organisms are exposed to stimulus energies.

*c. by which stimulus energies are converted into neural impulses.

d. whereby we can sense the position and movement of muscles,

tendons, and joints.


5. Color vision is most adequately explained by:

a. feature-detection theory.

b. a combination of feature-detection and opponent process theories.

*c. a combination of Young-Helmholtz and opponent-process theories.

d. a combination of opponent-process of gate-control theories.

e. opponent-process theory.


6. The principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion of their difference to be perceived is known as:

a. the opponent-process theory.

*b. Weber’s Law.

c. signal detection.

d. the difference threshold.

e. frequency theory.


7. As mentioned in class, myopia (nearsightedness) often results from:

a. a defective lens.

b. a problem with the photoreceptors.

*c. an eyeball that grows too long.

d. an eyeball that doesn’t grow long enough.

e. a defect in the ciliary muscles.


8. Damage to the periphery of the retina would probably have the MOST EFFECT on:

a. color vision.

b. accommodation.

*c. night vision.

d. feature detection.


9. When asked to estimate the distances of white disks under either clear or foggy conditions, people:

a. judged the disks to be closer when viewed in the fog than when viewed in the sunshine.

*b. judged the disks to be farther away when viewed in the fog than when viewed in the sunshine.

c. judged the disks to be the same distance away whether viewed under clear or foggy conditions.

d. found it impossible to make any distince estimates under foggy conditions.


10. When the soundtrack for a movie is played in the back of a classroom, students tend to perceive the sound as originating from the picture screen in the front of the room. This exemplifies the phenomenon of:

a. location constancy.

b. aerial perspective.

c. overlap.

d. perceptual adaptation.

*e. visual capture.


11. Who emphasized that the whole (of a perception) is greater than the sum of the sensations?

a. John Locke

b. parapsychologists

c. behavioral psychologists

*d. Gestalt psychologists


12. It has been suggested that experience with the corners of rectangular buildings may contribute to:

a. the Ponzo illusion.

b. shape constancy.

c. the moon illusion.

d. size constancy.

*e. the Muller-Lyre illusion.


13. In the context of visual perception, convergence refers to the:

a. tendency to perceive parallel lines as coming closer together in the distance.

b. current trend toward a combination of theories supporting the nature/nurtuer positions.

*c. extent to which the eyes turn toward each other when looking at an object.

d. tendency to see stimuli that are very near to each other as parts of a unified object.


14. Experiments with the visual cliff showed that most 6-month-old infants:

a. readily crossed over the cliff to be with their mothers.

b. crossed over the cliff but only after being enticed by a toy.

*c. refused to cross over the cliff to their mothers.

d. could esily climb out of the cliff.


15. When the moon is near the horizon, it appears larger than when it is high in the sky. This effect is primarily a result of:

a. the slightly dimmer appearance of the horizon moon.

b. the scattering of the horizon moon’s light waves, which penetrate the atmosphere at an


*c. distance cues, which make the horizon moon seem farther away.

d. the brighter appearance of the horizon moon.


16. In 1972, many people readily perceived photographs of a floating tree trunk as a partially submerged "Loch Ness Monster." The text mentions this in order to illustrate the powerful influence of:

a. ESP.

b. monocular cues.

*c. perceptual set.

d. perceptual grouping.

e. shape constancy.


17. The inability to combine senses into intact, unified perceptions is known as:

a. functional blindness.

b. blindspot.

*c. simultaneous agnosia.

d. photoreceptor confusion.


18. When human research participants are deprived of time cues, their circadian rhythms:

a. follow a 23-hour cycle.

b. follow a 24-hour cycle.

*c. follow a 25-hour cycle.

d. lose all synchronicity with any time schedule.


19. At 1:00 a.m. Luis gets out of bed and begins to sleepwalk. An EEG of his brain activity is most likely to indicate the presence of:

a. alpha waves.

b. beta waves.

c. sleep spindles.

*d. delta waves.

e. REM sleep.


20. According to the lecture, long-term use of sleeping pills is most likely to:

a. lead to a normal sleep cycle and few waking episodes during the night.

b. lead to an abnormal sleep cycle but to few waking episodes during the night.

*c. lead to an abnormal sleep cycle and to many waking eppisodes during the night.

d. have no long-term effects due to habituation to the drug.


21. Which of the following is characterized by the temporary cessation of breathing while asleep?

*a. sleep apnea.

b. narcolepsy.

c. night terror.

d. insomnia.


22. As a person progresses through a night of sleep, he or she will spend progessively ____ time in Stage IV sleep and the ____ time in REM sleep.

a. more; more

b. more; less

*c. less; more

d. less; less


23. The electrical activity of the brain, as reflected in the EEG, is MOST synchronized when a person is in:

a. Stage I sleep.

b. Stage II sleep.

c. Stage III sleep.

*d. Stage IV sleep.

e. in a concentrated awake state with eyes open.


24. Beta waves are indicative of:

a. Stage I sleep.

b. Stage II sleep.

c. Stage III sleep.

d. Stage IV sleep.

*e. a concentrated awake state with eyes open.


25. In the experiment on sleep deprivation in rats by Rechssthaffen (1983), which was discussed in class, rats deprived of sleep for four weeks:

a. recovered fully after being allowed to sleep.

b. experienced a deficit in cognitive function for one week after the sleep deprivation had ended.

c. experienced moderate problems with circadian rhythms for a short period after the sleep deprivation had ended.

*d. died.


26. REM sleep is referred to as paradoxical sleep because:

*a. our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.

b. we are deeply asleep but can be awakened easily.

c. our heart rate is slow and steady, while our breathing is highly irregular.

d. all of the above.


27. According to Freud, the threatening, uncensored meaning of a dream is its:

a. manifest content.

*b. latent content.

c. dissociated content.

d. hallucinatory content.


28. According to Freud’s theory of personality, the ____ represents our most basic instincts and drives.

*a. id

b. superego

c. ego

d. dream censor

e. manifest content


29. Male Japanese quail became sexually aroused by a red light that was repeatedly associated with the presentation of a female quail. The sexual arousal elicited by the red light was a(n):

a. UCR.

b. UCS.

*c. CR.

d. CS.


30. As discussed in class, Mowrer & Mowrer developed a classical conditioning technique for treating bedwetting, in which they paired a the stimulus of an electric shock with the stimulus of a full bladder. In this technique, the full bladder acted as the ____.

a. UCR.

b. UCS.

c. CR.

*d. CS.


31. For the most rapid acquisition of a CR, the CS should be presented:

a. shortly after the CR.

b. shortly after the UCS.

*c. shortly before the UCS.

d. at the same time as the UCS.


32. The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by:

*a. Garcia’s findings on taste aversion in rats.

b. Pavlov’s findings on the conditioned salivary response.

c. Watson and Rayner’s findings on fear conditioning in infants.

d. Tolman’s findings on latent learning in rats.


33. A negative reinforcer tends to ____ the behavior it follows.

*a. strengthen

b. eliminate

c. suppress but not eliminate

d. have unpredictable effects on


34. Which of the following behaviors is typically reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule?

a. studying for unexpetced quizzes

*b. inserting coins into a slot machine

c. paying a chasier for a candy bar

d. checking the mailbox to see if the mail has arrived


35. Philip and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Philip is paid $1.00 for every five calls he makes, while Michael is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Philip’s telephoning is paid on a ____ schedule, while Michael’s is paid on a ____ schedule.

*a. fixed-ratio; variable-ratio

b. variable-ratio; fixed-ratio

c. vised-ratio; variable-interval

d. fixed-interval; variable-ratio