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Bailey, A.J. (forthcoming) 'The Circular Migration of Puerto Rican Women: Towards A Gendered Explanation', with Dennis Conway and Mark Ellis. Reprinted in Willis, K., and Yeoh, B. (eds), Gender and Migration. Blackwell Publishers

Bailey, A.J., Ellis, M. and Conway, D. (1997) 'Circulation Migration and Labour Force Participation among Puerto Rican Women in New York' in Fairhurst, J., Booysen, I. and Hattingh, P. (eds) Migration and Gender. Pretoria: Department of Geography, University of Pretoria, on behalf of IGU Commission on Gender and Geography and IGU Commission on Population, 15-32

Chapman, M. and R. Mansell Prothero, eds., Circulation in Third World Countries. London, Boston, Melbourne and Henley: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985, 473 pp, ISBN 0-7102-0343-8.

Chapman, Murray, "Themes on circulation in the third world" (with R. Mansell Prothero), International Migration Review, 17 (1983): 597-632. Translated into Spanish: 1987, Temas sobre circulacion en el tercer mundo, Divulgacion Geografica 6, Mexico DF: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Geografica (47 pp). Reprinted: 1985, in Circulation in Third World Countries, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp 1-26; also East-West Population Institute Reprint 168.

Chapman, M., "Circulation," in John A. Ross (ed), International Encyclopedia of Population, vol 1, New York: Free Press, 1982, pp 93-98.

Conway, D., Bailey, A.J. and Ellis, M. (2001) 'Gendered and Racialized Circulation Migration: Implications for the poverty and work experiences of Puerto Rican Women in New York City' in Cordero-Guzman, H. Grosfoguel, R. and Smith R. (eds) Transnational Communities and the Political Economy of New York in the 1990s. Philadelphia: Temple University Press

Cooke, T. J. and Bailey, A.J. (1999) 'The Effects of Family Migration, Migration History, and Self-Selection on Married Women's Labor Market Achievement' in Boyle, P. and Halfacree, K. (eds) Migration and Gender in the Developed World. London: Routledge, 102-113

Ellis, M., Bailey, A.J. and Conway, D. (1996) 'The Circular Migration of Puerto Rican Women: Towards A Gendered Explanation', International Migration XXXIV No. 1:31-64

Ellis, Mark (University of Washington), Circulation Migration and Poverty in a Transnational Community: Labor Force Participation of Puerto Rican Women in New York City [Abstract]

Puerto Rican women living in New York City represent a segment of a transnational community with some of the highest rates of poverty on the US mainland. This community is characterized by high rates of repetitive (circulation) migration, and we discuss evidence that links circulation migration to the reduced labor force participation of Puerto Rican women....

Nicholas K. Gagahe The Process of Internal Movement in Solomon Islands: The Case of Malaita, 1978-1986 [pdf]

(Chapman) "challenged the conventional wisdom depicted by many theories. Lee's (1966) theory of migration emphasized, for the mover, the importance of place of origin, intervening variables, place of destination and the intention to move away permanently from an established place of origin or residence. However, the new conventional wisdom on "circulation" (sometimes called "circular migration") holds that movements into destinations are not intended to be permanent - even if they are long-lasting - and that the mover has an intention eventually to return to the original place of residence (Pryor, 1975)."
"The process of circulation involves many forms and types of mobility, usually short-term, but repetitive or cyclic in nature and commonly lacking any declared intention of a permanent or long-lasting change of residence (Zelinsky, 1971:225-226). The many forms of circulation range from brief, short-distance moves such as shopping, daily employment, schooling, or visiting, together termed "oscillation", to medium-term and lengthy journeys such as taking business trips or contract employment, defined as circulation (Pryor, 1975; Prothero and Chapman, 1985). The intention of the mover in circulation to return to the original place of residence involves an absence of one or more months and can be reflected by the sort of arrangements made either to retain or end ties and ongoing interests at the place of origin. This makes it possible to differentiate circulation from migration (Bedford, 1973:3)."

Kerner, C., Bailey, A.J., Wright, R., Miyares, I. and Mountz, A. (2001) "'Thank God She's Not Sick': Salvadoran Health Care in Hudson County, New Jersey" in Dyck, I., Lewis, N., and McLafferty, S. (eds) Geographies of Women's Health. Routledge 127-142

Matthews, John & Conrad J. Storad, Circle of Migration [ASU Research]

Kevin McHugh understands something about the idea of aging in place. But he is more intrigued by the folks who spend portions of their golden years migrating back and forth between residences in places they call home. And then there are the legions of people who actually take their homes with them and, in essence, age on the move.

Zelinsky, W. (1971). "The hypothesis of the mobility transition" Geographical Review 61:219-249.

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