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Conceptualizing the Decision Process:
Spatial Decision Process Models
Supporting & Related Pages:
|Stages & Phases||The Rational-Deductive Model||Adaptive & Behavioral Propositions||The Consulting Approach (practical/prescriptive)|
|Recognition of Problems or Opportunity: Activating the Decision Process||Motivation / Stress / Strain Conversion (Brown & Moore)||
|Establish Objectives (K&T, p.181)||Already at the beginning of the decision process, the decision maker has a utility function including a preference ordering that ranks all sets of consequences from the most to the least preferred.||Needs Assessment; Review alternatives (e.g. peers', competitors' solutions)|
|Classifying Objectives according to importance||Prerequisites, minimum requirements;||Musts & Wants, Scoring scales; (K&T, p.183)|
|Investigation & Search: Developing Alternatives from which to choose||
More process oriented models require specifications which are based on a variety of considerations, including:
|Comparing Alternatives with Objectives||Adverse Consequences Worksheet (K&T, p.203)|
|Select the best Alternative as a Tentative Decision||Decision maker selects that alternative which leads to the preferred consequences.||Alternative that receives the highest weighted score (K&T, p.189); feedback collected from focus groups (testers)|
|Anticipate unintended, adverse consequences||Evaluation; seek additional information and advice||Trial baloon, devil's advocate, any change causes problems somewhere;||Develop contingency actions to be able to counter unintended consequences (K&T,p.206)|
|Control effects of final decisions: Prevention of hostile consequences & prepare for follow-up (e.g. build-in flexibility)||Environment deteriorates; decision is postponed; decision maker procratinates or backtracks to interim adaptation or to earlier decision stage;|
Decision Making Viewed as a Process
The Environment of a Decision (Ebert & Mitchell, Ch.3)
Evaluation of Goals
Information Processes: Search for better Alternative
Judgmental Inferences (Ebert & Mitchell, Ch.6)
Reconsideration of Search Rules
Step 2 Develop Objectives (K&T, p.48)
Step 3 Identify Resources and Constraints
Step 4 Identify Potential Options/Alternatives
Step 5 Establish and Apply Screening Criteria
Step 6 Develop Alternatives (K&T, p.48)
Step 7 Evaluate Alternatives (K&T, p.49)
Step 8 Select
Step 9 Implement
Step 10 Monitor and Adapt
Aguilar, Francis Joseph. Scanning the Business Environment. N.Y.: McMillan 1967.
Aharoni, Yair. The Foreign Investment Decision Process. Boston, 1966.
BROWN,-LAWRENCE-A.; PHILLIBER,-SUSAN-G.; MALECKI,-EDWARD-J.; WALBY,-KAREN, Information source usage in the migration decision ( Ohio). Socio-Economic-Planning-Sciences. 1981. 15(6), pp 321-330, 4 tables, 18 refs.
Braybrooke, David and Charles E. Lindblom. A Strategy of Decision: Policy Evaluation as a Social Process. The Free Press, 1963/1970.
Cooper, Malcolm J.M., The Industrial Location Decision Making Process. University of Birmingham: Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, 1975.
Cyert, Richard & James March. Behavioral Theory of the Firm. 1963.
Ebert, Ronald and Terence R. Mitchell, Organizational Decision Processes: Concepts and Analysis. N.Y.: Crane, Russak & Co., Inc., 1975.
Golledge, R.G. & R.J. Stimson, Spatial Behavior: A Geographic Perspective, Guilford, 1997. [Ch.2: "Decision Making and Choice Behaviors", pp.31ff.]
Hayter, Roger. The Dynamics of Industrial Location. 1997, pp.146-54.
Kepner, Charles H. and Benjamin B. Tregoe, The Rational Manager, 2nd ed., Princeton, 1976.
McFadden, Daniel, "Economic Choices," American Economic Review 91(3), June 2001, 351-78.
McCLYMONT, D., Decision-making process of commercial farmers in Zimbabwe. Agricultural Administration. 1984. 17(3), pp 149-162, 2 figs, 6 refs.
March, James G. and H.O.Simon, Organizations, NY: Wiley, 1958.
Ohlmer, B.; Olson, K.; Brehmer, B. Understanding farmers' decision making processes and improving managerial assistance. Agricultural-Economics. 1998; 18(3): 273-290
Stigler, George J., "The Economics of Information," Journ of Political Economy, 69, 1961, 213-25.
Geog 450 ||
Econ & Bus Geog