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HighTech Activities & Innovative Behaviors In & Between Regions

Resources

(http://faculty.washington.edu/krumme/readings/hightech.html)


Supporting & Related Pages:


Internet Resources:

Route 128 / Boston Suburbs:

Technology Alliances:


Information Technology:


High-Tech Laboratories:


Local High-Tech Companies:


University-Industry Relations:


Impacts:

  1. Regional and Urban Economic Impacts:

  2. Community Involvement, Local Government:
    • Tech employees don a second hat San Jose Mercury News, Sunday, May 21, 2000, BY MICHELLE GUIDO
      Gilroy City Council member Tony Sudol spent most of last Monday evening in a council meeting, debating the hot-button issues of growth, development and traffic.... Sudol is one of dozens of Silicon Valley high-tech workers who also are active in city government. It's a task he took on because he wanted to help shape Gilroy's future -- but it makes his long work days even longer.....


Clippings:

Job Market: Tech openings vary regionally Seattle Times, Sunday, July 28, 2002 By Victor Godinez The Dallas Morning News

"California (998,000 jobs), Texas (460,000) and New York (364,900) continued to lead the nation last year in the number of tech jobs, according to the Cyberstates 2002 survey by AeA, formerly known as the American Electronics Association."

Roll call for tech firms in a turbulent year; Seattle Times, Sunday, December 30, 2001.

2001 was a tough year for technology companies. Beyond laying off employees, many filed for bankruptcy or closed their doors. Others were acquired by companies that usually had more resources or were looking to pick up assets. BANKRUPTCIES & CLOSINGS ...a list compiled by The Times' technology staff, are companies in the Puget Sound region that closed or were acquired during the year.

In sink-or-swim New Economy, how one company stays afloat Seattle Times, Sunday, February 11, 2001; By Alwyn Scott

Since the market for technology stocks burst last March, hundreds of Internet companies have burned out of existence, costing thousands of jobs, destroying billions in stock-market wealth... Now the question looms: Will dot-coms create lasting value? As the 6-year-old Cobalt Group set its budget for 2001, The Seattle Times went inside to see how an Internet company struggles to get ahead while those around it fail.

Gays and high-tech: Do they go together? Seattle Times, November 19, 2000 By Joel Garreau

You've heard the recipe: If you want your region to be a New Economy paragon, take one first-rate research university, add visionary entrepreneurs, season liberally with daring venture capitalists and double-click. But that couldn't be right, thought Richard Florida, a professor of economic development. If it were, then how could his university, Carnegie Mellon, be such a technology powerhouse while its city, Pittsburgh, remains such a low spot for high-tech?

Venture capitalists bet big on start-ups, but NW stake drops Seattle Times, August 16, 2000 by Stephen H. Dunphy

... venture-capital firms pumped a record $19.6 billion into U.S. companies in the second quarter, more than double the $7.65 billion a year earlier and 14 percent higher than the first quarter's $17.14 billion. But .. less money flowed into start-ups in the Northwest ...more than $590 million was invested in the Pacific Northwest in the second quarter,...

Preserving a piece of home in a high-tech world: Attracted to U.S. by technology, Indians yearn for familiar things News Tribune (Tacoma), Aug.7, 2000

Venture capitalists take aim at Asia Seattle P-I, Tuesday, May 30, 2000 By JASON SINGER BLOOMBERG NEWS

PALO ALTO, Calif. -- Venture capitalists from Silicon Valley, eager to repeat their Internet successes of the past two years, are turning to Asia, where economies are growing strongly, to finance start-ups.

State venture capital funding explodes: Huge gains noted in money for start-ups Seattle PI, Tuesday, May 16, 2000 By JOHN COOK SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER

Venture capital firms pumped more than half a billion dollars into Washington start-up companies in the first quarter of 2000 -- nearly 21 times more than the same quarter of 1997.

'Incubators' aim to speed hatching of high-tech firms: Early-stage support helps start-ups Seattle PI, Monday, November 29, 1999; By JOHN COOK

"High-tech incubators -- or accelerators, as iStart Ventures prefers to be called -- are the hottest trend in venture capital. The idea is simple: provide budding start-ups with office space, computers, high-speed Internet access and other professional services such as on-site accountants and legal experts in exchange for a minority stake in the company."

Venture Capitals: Funding blossoms beyond Silicon Valley as regional mini-hubs take root in the West [Posted Sunday, November 14, 1999 BY SCOTT HERHOLD Mercury News Staff Writer]

UW geneticist leaves to set up research venture Seattle Times, Dec.13, 1999; by Polly Lane

Noted geneticist and research entrepreneur Dr. Leroy Hood has left the University of Washington and is forming a private, nonprofit venture in Seattle that will focus on linking computer science with biology.

San Jose Mercury News [Silicon Valley]

Silicon Valley not the only high-tech mecca [By ERIC YOUNG (1999 Nando)]

PALO ALTO, Calif. - Even as Silicon Valley's economy booms, its status as the nation's technology capital is threatened by growing infrastructure problems and competition from other regions, a leading economic group warned Wednesday.

Digital Coast (Los Angeles) [2/23/98]

Has Silicon Valley job growth hit its peak? [Nando Media/ The Associated Press]

"The new dip in Silicon Valley is in job growth: For the first time since 1994, Santa Clara County is expected to end the year with a rate of job growth that falls well behind that of the state, producing 80 percent fewer new jobs than 1997, according to employment figures released Friday by the state."

FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY: The Hot New Tech Cities; By Steven Levy, Newsweek, Nov.9, 1998

Across America and around the world, hot spots are challenging Silicon Valley. Where to find the new jobs, the new wealth and the sheer fun of the Information Age today. Can any place ever hope to match the awesome success of Silicon Valley? To answer the question, venture capitalist Joe Schoendorf leads a visitor to the roof of 428 University Avenue in Palo Alto, Calif., wedges his shoe in the door so it won't lock and walks to the railing...."
Austin, Texas
Bangalore, India
Boise, Idaho
Boston, Mass.
Cambridge, England
Champaign-Urbana, Ill.
Salt Lake City, Utah
Seattle, Wash.
Tel Aviv, Israel
Washington, D.C.

BIOTECH BODIES. Business Week, July 27, 1998 (cover story)

Decades of research into tissue engineering are about to pay off as dozens of startups perfect living organs grown in the lab, not the body.

Opening of chip plant delayed Seattle Times, Tuesday, March 10, 1998 by The Associated Press

Matsushita Semiconductor says it is indefinitely delaying the opening of a new chip manufacturing building at its Puyallup plant because of a declining world market for memory chips.

Profit without Honor: (History of WWW Browsers Mosaic & Netscape) Seattle Times, Oct.5, 1997. by Paul Andrews in Business. does come through search under "browsers".

Silicon Valley: Special Report Business Week, Aug.25, 1997

The region is intoxicated with such successes. In the past two years, the Internet craze and hot new startups pumped up an already vibrant economy into one busting at the seams. In 1996, on average, one Valley company went public every five days, adding 62 new millionaires every 24 hours. More than 50,000 new jobs were created, while wages grew five times the national average. Last year, the region led the U.S. in worker productivity and export growth. ''This is an economic miracle taking place, right before our eyes,'' says....


Literature:

Amin, Ash. Post-Fordism: a reader / edited by Ash Amin. Oxford ; Cambridge, Mass. : Blackwell, 1994. Technological-innovations -- Economic-aspects. Technological-innovations -- Social-aspects. Industrial-organization. Capitalism. Regional-economic-disparities. [UW-Bothell Lib. Stacks HC79.T4 P667 1994]

Anderson, The role of collaborative integration in industrial organization: observations from the Canadian aerospace industry.AU: Anderson,-M.SO: Economic-Geography. 1995. 71(1), pp 55-78.

Angel, David P., Restructuring for innovation : the remaking of the U.S. semiconductor industry. New York : Guilford, 1994 [Suzzallo/Allen Stacks: HD9696.S43 U443 1994 vii, 216 p. : ill. ; 24 cm Series: Perspectives on economic change Bibliography Includes bibliographical references (p. 204-212) and index]

Angel, David P. and Engstrom, J., Manufacturing systems and technological change: the US personal computer industry. Economic-Geography. 1995. 71(1), pp 79-102.

Antonelli, Christiano. The Economics of Localized Technological Change and Industrial Dynamics. Kluwer, 1995. [HC79.T4.A583]

Appold, S.J. Labor-market imperfections and the agglomeration of firms: evidence from the emergent period of the US semiconductor industry. Environment & Planning A, vol.30(3), 1998.

Audretsch, David B. and Maryann P. Feldman, "R&D Spillovers and the Geography of Innovation and Production," American Economic Review 86(3), June 1996, pp.630-40.

Arita, Tomokazu and Philip McCann, Industrial alliances and firm location behaviour: some evidence from the U.S. semiconductor industry. [Reading, England] : University of Reading, Dept. of Economics, [1998] [Suzzallo/Allen Stacks: HD9696.S43 U4237 1998 21 p. : ill. ; 21 cm, Discussion papers in urban and regional economics. Series C ; vol. 10 (1997/98) = no. 130]

Aronowitz, Stanley, et al., eds., Technoscience and cyberculture / New York : Routledge, 1996. [Engineering General Stacks T14.5 .T4464 1996]

Audretsch, David B. and Paula E. Stephan, "Company-Scientist Locational Links: The Case of Biotechnology," American Economic Review 86(3), June 1996, pp.641ff.

Behrendt-H.; Tamasy-C. Balance of a boom: Do innovation centres fulfil the political expectations? German analyses in the light of Anglo-American surveys. [Bilanz eines Booms: Erfüllen Technologie- und Gründerzentren die politischen Erwartungen? Deutsche Analysen im Licht anglo-amerikanischer Untersuchungen.] Geographische-Zeitschrift.1997; 85(1): 34-51.

"In Germany, innovation centres belong to the most popular instruments of local technology policy. Despite the multitude of such institutions there is a lack of empirically based studies on the effects of innovation centres. This paper essentially pursues two goals. The first consists in presenting the most important results of a German survey of 108 innovation centres, of 1.021 enterprises having located there or having left already (cross-section and longitudinal-section analyses). Secondly, a comparison with results of empirically based studies on American and British Science Parks is discussed."

Beyers, William B. and Peter Nelson, The Impact of Technology-based Industries on the Washington State Economy, [A report prepared for the Technology Alliance, Seattle, November 1998] (Executive Summary) - (Full Report)

"Technology-based industries are now responsible for one third of total employment in Washington State, making them the largest industry in the state’s economy. Natural resource-based industries, such as agriculture and food products, and forest products, continue to be very important, particularly in more rural parts of Washington State."

  • Bhide, Amar. , Vinod Khosla and Sun Microsystems, Harvard Case Study in Business History, 1989. [pdf]

    Bower, D.Jane, Company and Campus Partnership: Supporting Technology Transfer. Routledge, London, 1992. [LC1085.4 G7 B68/Suz]

    Brockhoff, Klaus. Internationalization of Research and Development. Heidelberg and New York: Springer, 1998. Pp. x, 144. ISBN 3-540-64819-4.

    Explores the internationalization of R&D in firms having laboratories in countries other than the home of its headquarters. Why would a company want to have more than one R&D laboratory at different locations? Reviews the pros and cons of the internationalization of R&D and why internationalized R&D is different from laboratories in a home country. Considers various ways of starting up foreign R&D operations.

    Bronson, Po. The First $20 Million Is Always the Hardest : A Silicon Valley Novel Random House, 1997.

    Brown, Lori Hylton, Johnson, Christopher, Warlick, William, Global competitiveness of the U.S. computer software and service industries. Washington, D.C. : Office of Industries, U.S. International Trade Commission, [1995].

    Buderi, Robert, Engines of Tomorrow: How the World's Best Companies are Using Their Research Labs to Win the Future. Hardcover - 448 pages (May 2000) Ch. 10: "The New Pioneers: Intel and Microsoft," pp. 325-367. Simon & Schuster; ISBN: 0684839008.

    Robert Buderi is a former BusinessWeek technology editor and author of The Invention that Changed the World, and in his latest book, he gives a first-hand account of how some of the world's best companies are managing technological innovation and corporate research.

    Robert Buderi's web site [www.enginesoftomorrow.com]

    Buskirk, Bruce D., (Professor of Marketing), Edward D. Popper, (Dean, Bellarmine College), Growth Strategies for High Tech Firms [1998/2000]

    High technology products are new, they are based on new technology, and they often preceed a market demand.

    Castells, Manuel. TECHNOPOLES OF THE WORLD : THE MAKING OF TWENTY-FIRST-CENTURY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEXES / MANUEL CASTELLS AND PETER HALL. London ; New York : Routledge, 1994. 275 p. [T175.7 .C37 1994]

    Caniels, M.C.J., Knowledge Spillovers and Economic Growth: Regional Growth Differentials Across Europe. Cheltenham: Elgar, 2000. [HC240 C325.2000]

    Ch.2: "Knowledge and Location", pp.8-29

    Caniels, Marjolein C. J., University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands, Does distance matter for technology spillovers? [Abstract]

    "How does knowledge, i.e. innovations, diffuse over space? Traditional diffusion theory does not consider this question, but instead focuses on diffusion over time. After some early publications such as Gerschenkron (1962) and Abramovitz (1979), research on technology diffusion over countries was deepened during the 1980s. This literature became known as technology gap literature..."

    Cohen, Stephen S. and Gary Fields, Social Capital and Capital Gains, or Virtual Bowling in Silicon valley Working Paper 132 September 1998

    It is difficult to imagine an example of regional economic development that is more successful, or more famous, than California's Silicon Valley. Investors from all over the world arrive with suitcases of money... Ambitious, educated people... arrive to take their chances in start-ups fueled by stock options. Regional development theorists study Silicon Valley to identify the underlying characteristics that have enabled this area to become one of the most innovative and prosperous regional economies in the world.... Riding the newest wave of regional development theory is the notion of social capital popularized by Robert Putnam in his influential book, Making Democracy Work....

    Cowhey, Peter F. and J.D.Aronson, Managing the World Economy: The Consequences of Corporate Alliances. Council on Foreign Relations, 1993. (Ch.6: Semiconductors] [HD69.S8.C69.1993, Suz]

    Delaney, Edward J., "Technology Search and Firm Bounds in Biotechnology: New Firms as Agents of Change," Growth and Change 24, Spring 1993, 206-228.

    Delaney, Edward Joseph. New Firms' Innovative Search In A New-Technology Industry: Evaluation of Biotechnology Firms. Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Geography, University of Washington, [1991]

    Dosi, Giovanni and Luigi Orsenigo, "Industrial Structure and Technical Change," in: A. Heertje, ed., Innovation, Technology and Finance, Basil Blackwell (for the European Investment Bank), 1988.

    Dosi, Giovanni, Keith Pavitt, Luc Soete. The Economics of Technical Change and International Trade New York University Press [1990] xiv, 303 p.; ill.
    Includes bibliographical references (p. 271-292) and index.
    SUBJECTS: International trade Technological innovations, Economic aspects
    ISBN: 0-8147-1834-5 Cloth in US: $70.00

    Dosi, G. Publication List of International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [some of the papers are available online] (IIASA, Austria)

    Dosi, Giovanni, David J. Teece, Josef Chytry (editors) Technology, Organization and Competitiveness: Perspectives on Industrial and Corporate Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Date of publication: January 1998

    This is the first of what we hope will be a series of books based on articles published in Industrial and Corporate Change. Our purposes are threefold. First, as editors of ICC, we would like to showcase some of the excellent scholarship appearing in ICC. Second, we wish to display some of the common themes which run through much of the new literature on technological and organizational innovation. Third, we would like to bring together in one volume important articles that would assist the teaching enterprise in universities and companies throughout the world. (Haas, Berkeley)
  • Feldman, Maryann P. The Geography of Innovation. Kluwer 1994 [T173.8. F44]

    Florida, Richard, The Geography of Bohemia [PDF] Carnegie Mellon University, January 2001.

    examines the geography of bohemia and the relationships between it, human capital, and high-technology industries. The underlying hypothesis is that the presence and concentration of bohemians in an area creates an environment or milieu that attracts other types of talented or high human capital individuals....

    Garnsey-E.; Smith-H.L., Proximity and complexity in the emergence of high technology industry: The oxbridge comparison. Geoforum. 1998; 29(4): 433-450 [Location: Suzzallo Periodicals Display Shelves -- Call number: G1 .G29]

    This paper examines similarities and differences in the emergence of hightech enterprise and the growth of associated industry in Cambridgeshire and Oxfordshire since the 1960s.[GeoBase]

    Geneau de Lamaliere, Isabelle. "The Determinans of the Location of the Semiconductor Industry," in: Benko, G. and M. Dunford, eds., Industrial Change and Regional Development: The Transformation of New Industrial Spaces. Belhaven/Pinter, London 1991. [HC79.D5.I5/1991]

    Gertler, 'Being there': proximity, organization, and culture in the development and adoption of advanced manufacturing technologies.AU: Gertler,-M.-S.SO: Economic-Geography. 1995. 71(1), pp 1-26.

    Gittell, R.J. and P.M. Flynn, http://www.bos.frb.org/economic/neer/neer95.htm#295d">The Lowell High-Tech Success Story: What Went Wrong," (Abstract) New England Economic Review, March/ April 1995. [The causes & effects of Wang's employment reduction]

    Hall, Peter, "The Industrialization of Information: San Francisco/ Palo Alto/ Berkeley 1950-1990," Chapter 14 (pp.423ff.) in: Cities in Civilization. N.Y.: Pantheon Books, 1998. [HT111.H345 1998 /AUP General Stacks]

    Hamel, Gary. Bringing Silicon Valley inside Harvard Business Review; Boston; Sep/Oct 1999; Volume: 77 (5), 70-84

    "In 1998 Silicon Valley companies produced 41 IPOs, which by January 1999 had a combined market capitalization of $27 billion - that works out to $54,000 in new wealth creation per worker in a single year. But it is not a group of geniuses generating such riches. It is a business model. In Silicon Valley, ideas, capital, and talent circulate freely, gathering into whatever combinations are most likely to generate innovation and wealth."

    Hansen, Dean L. Acquiring High Technology: The Case of the Brazilian Computer Industry. Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Geography, University of Washington, [1990].

    Haug, P. Regional formation of high-technology service industries: the software industry in Washington state. Environment-and-Planning-A. June, 1991. v23(n6). p869(16).

    Leading states for the software industry, ranked by location quotient. (table). Washington state. (map). Characteristics of software-industry respondents in Washington state. (table). Location decisions in the software industry. (table). Reasons and sources of financing for starting software companies. (table). Material inputs and sales of the software industry, by region. (table). Industries,-Location-of -- Research. High-technology-industry -- Management. Computer-software-industry -- Washington-(State). Washington-(State) -- Business-and-industry. [SIC 7371. Computer programming services 7372. Prepackaged software 7373. Computer integrated systems design]

    Haug, P., "Formation of Biotechnology Firms in Greater Seattle Region: An Empirical Investigation of Entrepreneurial, Financial, and Educational Perspectives," Environment and Planning A, 27(2), February 1995, pp.249-67.

    Holly, Brian. "The organization of production in high technology industries: an empirical assessment", (with A.E. Clarke) The Professional Geographer, 48(2) 1996, 127-139.

    Humphrey, Watts S., Managing technical people : innovation, teamwork, and the software process, Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1997. - Computer-software -- Development -- Management. Industrial-project-management. SEI series in software engineering. [Engineering General Stacks QA76.76.D47 H86 1997]

    Kaplan, David A., The Silicon Boys and Their Valley of Dreams (Perennial; New York, 2000), Chapter 2 (Genesis) | "Chapter 3: Belief," | Ch. 4: "Prophets" | Ch. 5: "Oz," pp. 79-154. | Ch. 6 ("Money") | 7 ("Profits") | Ch. 10 ("Yahoo!").

    Kelley, Maryellen R., U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Advanced Technology Program, 101/A303, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, Susan Helper, NBER, Cambridge, MA, USA Information technology, organizational capabilities and context: How do regional economies and institutions matter to the spread of innovation?

    Kenney, Martin and Richard Florida, "Venture Capital in Silicon Valley: Fuelling New Firm Formation," in Martin Kenney, ed., Understanding Silicon Valley: Anatomy of an Entrepreneurial Region (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000.)

    Kenney, Martin ed., Understanding Silicon Valley: Anatomy of an Entrepreneurial Region (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000.)

    Klepper, Steven, "Entry, Exit, Growth, and Innovation over the Product Cycle," American Economic Review. 86(3), June 1996, pp.562-83.

    Koschatzky, Knut, Innovation Services and Regional Development, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research , Karlsruhe, Germany Innovation networks between industry and business-related services - The impact of innovation intensity of firms on regional inter-firm cooperation.

    William Stuart Leslie, Robert Kargon, and Erica Schoenberger, "Far Beyond Big Science: Science Regions and the Organization of Research and Development," in Peter Galison and Bruce Hevly, eds., Big Science: The Growth of Large-Scale Research (Stanford; Stanford University Press, 1992) p. 334-54. [pdf]

    Lowood, Henry, (Stanford University Libraries) From Steeples of Excellence to Silicon Valley: The Story of Varian Associates and Stanford Industrial Park

    Lyons, D.I., "Agglomeration Economies among High Technology Firms in Advanced Production Areas: The Case of Denver/Boulder," Regional Studies 29(3), June 1995, pp.265-78.

    Malecki, E., Technology & Economic Development. Second ed., 1998?

    Malecki-Edward-J. Bradbury-Susan-L. R&D facilities and professional labour: labour force dynamics in high technology. (research and development). Regional-Studies. April, 1992. v26(n2). p123(14). The results indicate that large cities are the preferred site of R&D facilities since they provide easy accessibility and professional amenities.

    Miller, William F., The "Habitat" for Entrepreneurship, Silicon Valley Network Project,Stanford University, July, 2000.

    MORGAN, KEVIN and ANDREW SAYER - Sussex University. Micro-circuits of Capital: 'Sunrise' Industry and Uneven Development. Blackwell, 1988.

    National Science Foundation, Chapter 6: Industry, Technology, and Competitiveness in the Marketplace

    "In this chapter, high-tech industries are identified using R&D intensities calculated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. There is no single preferred methodology for identifying high-technology industries. The identification of those industries considered to be high-tech has generally relied on a calculation comparing R&D intensities. R&D intensity, in turn, has typically been determined by comparing industry R&D expenditures and/or numbers of technical people employed (i.e., scientists, engineers, technicians) to industry value added or to the total value of its shipments."

    Oakey, R. P. (Raymond P.). High-technology new firms : variable barriers to growth. London : Paul Chapman Pub., Ltd., 1995. Business Admin General Stacks [HC79.H53 O15 1995]

    OECD Proceedings. Boosting Innovation: The Cluster Approach. Paris, 1999. [HD69.S8.B66.1999, Suz]

    Palda, Kristian: Innovation Policy and Canada's Competitiveness [1991] [The Fraser Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada] [ref. to Guy Steed's "Threshold Firms"]

    Paulk, Mark C., ... [et al.]. The capability maturity model : guidelines for improving the software process / principal contributors and editors, Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., c1995. Computer-software -- Development. Engineering General Stacks QA76.76.D47 C37 1995.]

    The Red Herring guide to the digital universe : the inside look at technology business - from Silicon Valley to Hollywood / by the editors of the Red Herring ; designed by Bart Nagel's brain. New York : Warner Books, 1996. [493 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. Computer-software-industry -- United-States. Business Admin General Stacks HD9696.C63 U564 1996]

    Rigby, David L., Geography and Technological Change, in: Sheppard, Eric and Trevor J. Barnes, eds., A companion to economic geography. Oxford, UK ; Malden, Mass. : Blackwell Publishers, 2000 [Chapter 13, pp.202ff.] [Suzzallo/Allen Stacks HF1025 .C66 2000]

    Saxenian, Annalee Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128 (Cambridge, MA; Harvard University Press, 1994. [pdf] [This book won the American Association of Publishers award for best professional and scholarly book in the category of business and management.]

    Saxenian, Annalee Silicon Valley's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs (San Francisco; Public Policy Institute of California, 1999). [pdf]

    Scott, A.J. and A.S.Paul, "Industrial Development in Southern California, 1970-1987," in: John Fraser Hart, ed., Our Changing Cities. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991, pp.189ff. [HT123 O87/1991]

    Scott-Allen-J. Low-wage workers in a high-technology manufacturing complex: the Southern Californian electronics assembly industry. Urban-Studies. Dec, 1992. v29(n8). p1231(16). "The paper sketches out a portrait of a secondary labour market in which job precariousness and social marginality exist side-by- side with a certain degree of internal differentiation and permanence."

    Scott, Allen John. Technopolis : High-Technology Industry and Regional Development in Southern California Berkeley : University of California Press, 1993.ISBN: 0520081897 ; xiv, 322 p. : ill., maps. [HC107.C23 H537 1993] (Amazon-Review)

    Shefer, Daniel and Amnon Frenkel: Local milieu and innovations: Some empirical results Ann Reg Sci 32 (1998) 1, 185-200.

    Sigalla, Fiona and A.D. Viard, "Would a Research Tax Credit Be a Good Investment for Texas?" in Southwest Economy, Issue 2, March/April 1999, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas

    The Texas legislature is considering a new corporate income tax credit for research and development (R&D) spending within the state. Economists generally believe society benefits when government encourages R&D. The federal government and more than one-third of the states currently offer corporate tax credits to subsidize R&D.

    Sternberg, Rolf and Arndt, O. Do Manufacturing Firms Profit From Intraregional Innovation Linkages? An Empirical Based Answer. In: European Planning Studies, Vol. 8 (2000), No. 4, pp. 465-486.

    Sternberg, Rolf and Koschatzky, K. R&D cooperation in innovation systems - some lessons from the European Regional Innovation Survey. In: European Planning Studies, Vol. 8 (2000), No. 4, pp. 487-502.

    Sternberg, Rolf, Innovation Networks and Regional Development - Evidence from the European Regional Innovation Survey (ERIS): Theoretical Concepts, Methodological Approach, Empirical Basis and Introduction to the Theme Issue. In: European Planning Studies, Vol. 8 (2000), No. 4, pp. 389-408.

    Sternberg, R. "Assessment of innovation centres - methodological aspects and empirical evidence from western and eastern Germany," European-Planning-Studies. 1995. 3(1), pp. 85-97.

    Storper-Michael. Scott-Allen-J. Work organisation and local labour markets in an era of flexible production. International-Labour-Review. Sept-Oct, 1990. v129(n5). p573(19).

    "Paying particular attention to local labour markets in flexible production systems, the authors show how local agglomeration tends to enhance flexibility, and examine three main kinds of flexible agglomeration: craft-based complexes, high-technology complexes, and business and financial complexes."

    Simone Strambach, Institute of Geography University of Stuttgart, Germany, Stuttgart, Germany, Knowledge-intensive business services as an element of learning regions - the case of Baden-Württemberg Regional Science, Vienna Congress 1998 [Abstract]

    Sommers, Paul (Senior Research Fellow), and Daniel Carlson, (Senior Lecturer at Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington in Seattle) Ten Steps to a High Tech Future: The New Economy in Metropolitan Seattle Brookings Institution, Report, December 2000

    ...seeks to understand the location pattern of high tech firms in the Seattle region... what factors influence their location decisions within the region... describes ten steps that city officials interested in facilitating the development of a high technology presence can take...

    Swann, G.M. Peter, Martha Prevezer, and David Stout, The dynamics of industrial clustering : international comparisons in computing and biotechnology Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1998 [Foster General Stacks: HC260.H53 D96 1998 viii, 347 p. : ill., map ; 23 cm; Bibliography Includes bibliographical references (p. [309]-327) and index]

    Usselman, Steven W., "IBM and Its Imitators: Organizational Capabilities and the Emergence of the International Computer Industry," Business and Economic History, Vol.22, No. 2 (Winter 1993): 1-35.

    Welfens, Paul J.J., et al., Technological Competition, Employment and Innovation Policies in OECD Countries. Springer (Berlin), 1998 [HF1414.T4 1998/Suz]

    Wieand, Kenneth, A lack of high-tech jobs? The numbers show otherwise

    CEDR uses a definition of high-tech service companies reported in the West Virginia Business and Economic Review. Center for Economic Development Research (CEDR) employs the review's definition to compare the size and growth of high-tech service employment and business formation in the Bay area with the United States. In the Bay area, 21 industries have 51,271 workers and a 13 percent growth rate.

    Wolfe, Tom. "The Tinkerings of Robert Noyce: How the Sun Rose on the Silicon Valley, Esquire Magazine, December 1983, pp. 346-374.


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