Internet Access & the Digital Divide:

Information Inequality at Local & Global Levels

The unprecedented pace of changes in information technology together with other technological changes and a rapid expansion of information and knowledge are affecting all economic, social and societal facets of daily work and life. The promise of the levelled playing field while nominally realized maybe in chat rooms appears to turn into a threat of aggrevated economic disparities. What can be done -- locally and internationally -- to overcome the "digital divide" or "cyber-segregation" and to transform modern information tools into instruments which soften boundaries to economic opportunity, and spread economic development impulses instead of localizing them?

"The term Digital Divide was coined in the mid-1990s in the adversarial atmosphere underlying the issue of whether regulation should be built into the Telecommunication Act of 1996 to offset market forces arising with the new information infrastructure." (Digital Partners [Seattle])

"The term "digital divide" refers to the gap between individuals, households, businesses and geographic areas at different socio-economic levels with regard to their opportunities to access information and communication technologies (ICTs) and their use of the Internet. It reflects differences among and within countries, and raises a number of questions. Where does it occur and why? What are its causes? How can it be measured? What are the relevant parameters? How wide is it? Where is it most critical? What are its effects likely to be in the short term? In the longer term? What needs to be done to alleviate it? These questions have only recently been raised, and it is not possible, as yet, to answer all of them with any certainty." [OECD, Understanding the Digital Divide, Report]

TV clip , "Bridging the Digital Divide"

QUICK INDEX: Supporting & Related Pages: Diversity & Outreach (Univ. of Wash.)
Economic Handicaps: Poverty, Unemployment, Homelessness...
Knowledge, Information Technology and Development
Internet Business
Internet Use
Non-Profit Organizations
Place & Social Capital
Virtual Communities
Community Technology Organizations


Shaping the Network Society [Patterns for Participation, Action and Change] Diac02 Symposium, Seattle, May 16-19, 2002.

Sponsored by: Public Sphere Project of Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, National Communication Association: Task Force on the Digital Divide.

Giant media conglomerates and computer companies are rapidly increasing their control of the information and communication infrastructure upon which this public sphere depends. Governments, too are often part of this problem: instead of promoting access and multi-way access to this infrastructure they actively or passively discourage civic sector uses. Civic society is fighting back in a million ways. The opportunities and threats offered by a global "network society" are too great to be ignored.

Seattle & Washington:

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, University of Washington [Diversity Site]

Digital Divide Project, University of Washington [Office of Educational Partnerships] | or here!

"The Seattle School District and the University of Washington are collaborating to create a curriculum for middle school and high school students that begins to engage them in some of the complexities of the digital divide, especially in the global dimensions of these issues. The curriculum will give students historical, economic and social contexts for the digital divide,...

Other Internet Sites

The Digital Divide (May 2002) [OCLC Public Affairs Information Service - Resource Page] []

Digital Opportunity Channel [Launched May 2002]

a joint endeavour of OneWorld and the Digital Divide Network. This global portal will highlight uses of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for sustainable development. The content in this portal will be collected from thousands of organisations around the world working in the field among marginalized and poor communities.

The Digital Divide Network []

s computer networking becomes increasingly important to economic and social success, many people in inner cities and isolated rural areas are failing to acquire the new technology as rapidly as their more affluent neighbors...

Internet Society []

Digital Partners, Seattle

a Seattle-based nonprofit institute, evokes the leadership that catalyzes investments in technology content and infrastructures needed by the poor. [also here]

Measuring and Representing Accessibilty in the Information Age [a 1998 conference]

"Concepts of potential and realized interaction and accessibility are central to geographic theory and models. Current models are based, however, on physical notions of distance and connectivity that are insufficient for understanding new forms of structures and behaviors characterizing an information age. Accessibility and spatial interaction in the traditional physical sense remain important, but information technologies are dramatically modifying and expanding the scope of these core geographical concepts."

Clinton Tackles 'Digital Divide' by Declan McCullagh

9.Dec.1999 PST President Clinton will tour the United States next spring to highlight how some Americans do not have ready access to technology education and the Internet. "There is still a lot more to do," Clinton said... "We must connect all of our citizens to the Internet, not just in schools and libraries, but in homes, small businesses, and community centers...

Digital Divide (PBS)

Computers are increasingly conditioning the kind of country we live in. DIGITAL DIVIDE shines a light on the role computers play in widening social gaps throughout our society, particularly among young people. By providing equitable and meaningful access to technology we can ensure that all children step into the 21st Century together.

Universal Service and Universal Access [National Telecommunications & Information Administration]


The concept of "universal service" in U.S. telecommunications policy has traditionally referred to the goal that all Americans should have access to affordable telephone service. As America has increasingly become an information society, however, that concept has broadened to include access to information services. Now that a considerable portion of today's business, communication, and research takes place on the Internet, access to the computers and networks may be as important as access to traditional telephone services. At the request of Vice President Gore, the Commerce Department's National Telecommunications and Information Administration ("NTIA") has analyzed telephone and computer penetration rates across the United States to determine who is, and who is not yet, connected....

Characteristics and Choices of Internet Users [] United States General Accounting Office Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives February 2001 [GAO-01-345 Contents Letter 3 Appendixes]

Digital Divide Summit UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20230 December 9, 1999

Information tools, such as the personal computer and the Internet, are increasingly critical to economic success and personal advancement. In early July, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration issued a report, Falling Through the Net: Defining the Digital Divide, that found a growing gap between those with access to these tools and those without.

Other Digital Divide Studies & Data:

Internet Public Policy Network: Digital Divide

March 22, 1999, Time Magazine: "Small towns without Internet find it harder to attract new jobs" (requires subscription to archive)

The New Divides: Looking Beneath the Numbers... (in secondary schools) [Education Week]

The Digital Divide [ (disconnect)] Dateline: 10/03/99

"In the book, Powershift, Alvin and Heidi Toffler suggest that power is moving from its traditional sources of violence and wealth to a new dependence on knowledge. They warn that:
' Whatever gulf separates the rich from the poor, an even greater chasm separates the armed from the unarmed and the ignorant from the educated. Today, in the fast-changing, affluent nations, despite all inequities of income and wealth, the coming struggle for power will increasingly turn into a struggle over the distribution of and access to knowledge.'"

The Digital Divide [ (disconnected); Dateline: 1/31/99]

"The truth is that there is nothing at all worldly or wide about the Web. Granted, the impact technology has played on the last half of the twentieth century has been profound, however, according to Patti Whaley's article Potential Contributions of Information Technologies to Human Rights 2/3 of the world's population has yet to make a phone call."

CTCNet/Civil Rights Forum MIRA Project

In collaboration with the Civil Rights Forum, CTCNet has supported a telecommunications public policy project, with special resources for existing and new rural affiliates, including a pool for $70,000 in funds for mini-grants. This project and collaboration were made possible with support from the Managing Information with Rural America (MIRA) initiative of the W.K. Kellogg Foundation.

Information Society

Special Issue: The Digital Divide: Exploring Equity and Politics Editor: Dr. Sharon Strover, University of Texas at Austin
The Information Society will publish a special theme issue investigating The Digital Divide. The goal of this issue is to move beyond simple documentation of "gaps" between those who do and do not have computers or Internet access in order to more thoroughly interrogate why this particular subject has galvanized so many different constituencies, how we might most usefully conceptualize it, and why it should or should not be a major contemporary policy focus.

Disability Access:

The Technology Access Foundation (TAF) [Seattle]

... is a non-profit agency with a mission to provide communities of color access to technology. This foundation is the brainchild of Microsoft retiree Trish Millines and former Seattle Mental Health practitioner Jill Hull. TAF was started in October 1996.

Regulating Web Access: Was there a clear winner? The Congressional Hearing on the ADA and the Internet; by Sean Lindsay

On Wednesday, 9 February, the US Congressional Judiciary Committee (Sub-Committee on the Constitution) held a hearing to investigate whether the Americans with Disabilities Act should be applied to commercial Internet service providers and websites. Nine witnesses were called to give testimony, representing the various interests at stake.

Institute on Independent Living

The Institute works with projects that are to promote the opportunities to self-determination in every-day life for persons with extensive disabilities, in particular, personal assistance users... User-run personal assistance requires awareness, knowledge and skills... Personal Assistance Network ... (compiles) an internet-based library with legal texts, training manuals for assistance users, international examples of assistance delivery schemes, etc.

Alliance for Technology Access [The mission of the Alliance for Technology Access is to connect children and adults with disabilities to technology tools.]

a national network of technology resource centers and technology vendors that help children and adults with disabilities, parents, teachers, employers, and others to explore computer systems, adaptive devices and software. Of particular interest are the sections labeled "WWW Design" and "Access to the WWW."

BOBBY [Bobby is a Web-based tool that analyzes Web pages for their accessibility to people with disabilities.]

CITA [The federal Center for Information Technology Accommodation (CITA) ( has served, since its creation in 1984, as a model demonstration facility utilizing private and public sector resources to develop "maximally accommodating" technology and practices.]

The National Center for the Dissemination of Disability Research (NCDDR),

coordinated by the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL), facilitates linkages among researchers, consumers, and service providers with respect to the needs and preferred modes of information access for the disabled. Past issues of NCDR's quarterly newsletter, The Research Exchange, are available online, and cover topics ranging from promoting websites to disabled users to evaluating the effectiveness of Internet activity.

The Yuri Rubinsky Insight Foundation hosts WebABLE!, a web portal on disability access information, which features one of the best directories of software tools that address accessibility issues. There are also tutorials, and an interesting "groupware" interface to facilitate collaborative initiatives and alliances on accessibility projects.

The World Wide Web Consortitum's Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) is currently developing a set of guidelines for Web page authoring that address the needs of people with disabilities.

Another set of guidelines produced by the Trace Research and Development Center at University of Wisconsin, Madison is the Unified Website Accessibility Guidelines

Audio: Information Revolution:

Extending the Information Revolution, A White Paper on Policies for Prosperity and Security

Dr. Kenan Patrick Jarboe
February 2002

Audio of Press Conference - National Press Club 2/12/02

Click on the links below to download the sound files. You will need Real 
Player to hear the audio. Don't have Real Player? Click here to download 
it for free.

1. Welcome: Richard Cohon, Chairman, Athena Alliance

2. Introduction: Kenan P. Jarboe, President and Chief Executive Officer, 
Athena Alliance

3. Broadband: Karen Kornbluh, Markle Fellow, New America Foundation

4. Community Internet Access: John Horrigan, Pew Internet and American 
Life Project

5. Utilization by Community Groups: Kenan Jarboe for Ryan Turner, OMB 

6. Education: Bonnie Bracy, Christa McAuliffe Educator, National Education 

7. Post-secondary education and training: Samuel Leiken, senior policy 
consultant, Council for Adult and Experiential Learning

8. Economic Development: Kenan Jarboe, Athena Alliance,
Entrepreneurship: Kenan Jarboe for Erik Pages, National Commission on 

9. Utilization by small manufacturers: Mark Troppe, National Center on 
Education and the Economy

10. Financing: Kenan Jarboe for Stockton Williams, Enterprise Foundation,
Information Ownership: Kenan Jarboe, Athena Alliance
International Aid and Development: Kenan Jarboe, Athena Alliance,
Conclusion: Kenan Jarboe

United Kingdom:

Gapping the Digital Divide [Resources, Program + Outcomes] Oxford University

[The Programme in Comparative Media Law & Policy (PCMLP) was founded in 1996] "This Access forum serves as a follow-up to the Conference. During the conference the belief that access to ICTs can make a significant difference to social and economic development was reinforced. The conference recognised that a new approach to universal access needed to be developed..."


Internetkultur(en) zwischen virtueller Wirklichkeit und "Real Life" Ludwig-Uhland-Institut für empirische Kulturwissenschaft; Klaus Schönberger WS 1998/99 03.11. 1998

Carel Mohn, Mit der Transparenz der Verwaltung hat Deutschland nichts im Sinn Die Bürger haben ein Recht auf Akteneinsicht," (September 1998)

Internet Governance Wein in neuen Schläuchen? Von Bernd Lutterbeck ( unter Mitarbeit von Kei Ishii ( Draft v. 22.10.1998

"Demokratie online: Neue Medien - ein Weg zur direkten Demokratie". Bundestagspräsident Wolfgang Thierse stellte sich am 19. Januar 1999 in einer Online-Konferenz politikinteressierten Nutzerinnen und Nutzern zu dem Thema

Other International Sites:

KnowNet Initiative

Knowledge incubates in the Human Mind and when applied innovatively becomes a factor of growth and development. Our Mirror Site:
"We stand at the dawn of the new millennium. The new millennium brings with it a world of shrinking time, disappearing geographical boundaries, intertwined economies and globalized impacts. The force which is spearheading this transition is Information and Communication Technology (ICT)." "The advances in information and communication technology, are re-structuring the global social economic equation - shifting from income divide to knowledge divide. The info-technological revolution on one hand is spearheading the growth of Knowledge Societies in developed countries and has aroused much interest among the civil society, markets and the agents of change. On the other hand, more than 850 million people in developing countries are excluded from a wide range of information and knowledge. The poor in developing countries remain much isolated - economically, socially and culturally from the burgeoning information and progress in the arts, science and technology."


Int'l Women's Month: ICT and the Gender Divide (India) [Browse the Global Knowledge Development Discussion, March 11, 2002]

The Net's digital divide fading away ZDNetNews, By Alorie Gilbert Special to ZDNet News March 5, 2002, 5:00 AM PT

The Internet, long the domain of the young, affluent and technologically savvy, is becoming host to a more diverse mix of people that increasingly resembles the U.S. population, according to a new forecast.

Computers for the People in Brazil, New York Times, January 7, 2002 By JENNIFER L. RICH

"... Silvio Santos, the media and finance tycoon ... had signed on to promote efforts by the computer industry to bridge the digital divide by offering a package of PC, printer and software with a cost subsidized by the hardware and software companies involved...

U.K. to connect 12,000 deprived homes, schools to Net by Laura Rohde, IDG News Service\London Bureau March 16, 2001, 06:05

The U.K. government on Friday announced its pilot program to wire up 12,000 homes and schools from disadvantaged areas to high speed Internet connections. Conducted through the Department for Education and Employment (DEE), the program is part of a 10 million pound (US$14.4 million) project launched last April called Wired up Communities and funded through the Capital Modernisation Fund, the DEE said in a statement.

Editorial: World's widest divide is hardly digital Seattle Times, October 21, 2000

It is a digital divide, yes. But the more important divide, as Microsoft chairman Bill Gates continues to argue, is between their water, food, schools and health.

Net wiring for India through hole in wall: Computers in concrete bring Internet to slums San Jose Mercury News, August 13, 2000 BY MARK MCDONALD Mercury News Vietnam Bureau

NEW DELHI, India -- The wall is not a subtle or decorative thing, and it was put there, let's be clear, to keep the poor people out. Slums on one side, India's gleaming high-tech future on the other. The wall was built solely to protect the stately corporate headquarters of NIIT, a huge computer-training and software-services firm. But now there's a breach in that wall...

Many new sites aimed at African Americans being created to meet growing demand; Seattle Times, January 30, 2000, 08:57 a.m. Pacific; by Nancy Imperiale Wellons The Orlando Sentinel

When the government released a report this year saying black Americans are not logging on to the Internet as rapidly as other groups, it raised a small furor, with many charging the data were inaccurate.

Information Haves and Haves Not [Marketer] [; disconnected]

July 12, 1999: As the U.S. moves ahead on the information super highway, some risk being left behind. This is the caveat made clear by Falling through the Net: Defining the Digital Divide, a report published by the Department of Commerce.

Helping people bridge technology gap; Seattle Times, January 25, 1999 by Marsha King

In the past three years, public computer sites have opened at Seattle public libraries, neighborhood-service centers, community centers, senior centers and nonprofit organizations, as well as for-profit operations like the Speakeasy Cafe. There are now 96 public computer sites in Seattle and King County.

Technocrats, philanthropists share goal to close world's digital divide Seattle Times, November 30, 1999 by Gordon Black

On a list of daily needs among the world's poorest, you might rank clean water, sanitation, food, housing, jobs and education. How about Internet access or cellular phones?

Partnerships across the 'digital divide' ; Seattle Times, November 25, 1999 by Bill Clapp and Rodrigo Baggio

Here in the wealthy and technology-strong Northwest, our obligation to support international development means more than just hosting the WTO summit. It means forging partnerships that don't rely only on government to solve at least two of the greatest threats to peace and self-reliance: poverty and the rapidly growing "digital divide."

Explosion of knowledge helps bridge the divide; Seatlle Times, November 2, 1999; by William Raspberry/Syndicated columnist

WASHINGTON - You saw the stories of the embarrassment at Encyclopaedia Britannica last week as the company's highly advertised free Web site was jammed into nonfunctioning.... More striking, though, is what the stories didn't say: What an extraordinary thing it is that people around the world suddenly have access - free access - to knowledge that would have been the envy of a university professor earlier in my own lifetime.

"Digital Divide", Seattle Times Oct 7, 1999.

Shrinking the digital divide is a big concern; those with computers have an advantage over those without. High-school students without home computers are already more likely to appear in community-college classes or large lecture halls (or neither) than in top-ranked colleges with personal attention.

Society's digital divide ; By CNET Staff; March 14, 1997, 5:30 p.m. PT

Many Netizens have long thought of the Internet as the great equalizer. A study released today by Bellcore Labs says that is not so. The same divergence found in society along cultural and racial lines is found online and offline, according to James Katz, who conducted the Markle Foundation-funded study. Katz calls the phenomenon of who is online and who is not the "digital divide."

Racial Divide Found on Information Highway by Amy Harmon, reprinted from the New York Times, April 17, 1998, page A1

At a time when the Clinton Administration is promoting the Internet as an engine of commerce and a tool of democracy, a new study has found that black Americans are far less likely to use the global computer network than are whites.


Verderbilt ELab []

Understanding the Digital Economy:

Moderator: Zoe Baird, John and Mary R. Markle Foundation
Donna Hoffman, Vanderbilt University
Heather Hudson, University of San Francisco and International Development Research Centre
Comment: Gerald (Jerry) L. Lohse, The Wharton School
Comment: John Connolly, AbiliTech, Inc.

Alterman, John B.: How World-Wide is the Web?
news clipping about a Jordan Internet Service Provider

Baker, Paul M.A., Policy Bridges for the Digital Divide: Assessing the Landscape and Gauging the Dimensions. FirstMonday: Internet Journal Volume 6, Number 5 - May 7th 2001

... a disservice is done in reducing the apparent inequities in the diffusion of the technologies to a simple socioeconomic concern. Rather than a one-dimensional "digital divide," more accurately there is a policy problem related to the use and deployments of ICTS with multiple geographic, social, economic and organizational dimensions.

Dodge, Martin and Rob Kitchin, Mapping Cyberspace, 2001, pp.41f. "Geographies of exclusion".

Ebo, Bosah, ed., Cyberimperialism? Global Relations in the New Electronic Frontier. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2001. [ Table of Contents] [HD30.37 C93 2001]

-- Cyberglobalization: Superhighway or Superhypeway? by Bosah Ebo 
-- Theoretical Issues on Cyberglobalization 
-- Three faces of Cyberimperialism by Frank Louis Rusciano 
-- From Imperialism to Glocalization: A Theoretical Framework for the 
Information Age by Marwan Kraidy 
-- The Internet and the Problem of Legitimacy: A Tocquevillian Perspective 
by Jonathan Mendilow 
-- Cybercolonialism: Speeding Along the Superhighway or Stalling on a 
Beaten Track? by Deborah Tong 
-- Politics in the Electronic Global Village 
-- The Empire Strikes Back: The Cultural Politics of the Internet by David 
J. Gunkel 
-- Creating New Relations: The Internet in Central and Eastern Europe by 
Margot Emery and Benjamin J. Bates 
-- A People's Electronic Democracy and an Establishment System of 
Government: The United Kingdom by Glen
-- Global Economic Issues in Cyberspace 
-- Prospects of Small Economics in the Age of the Internet by Vasja 
-- Counter-Hegemonic Media: Can Cyberspace Resist Corporate Colonization? 
by Jeffrey Layne Blevins 
-- The Information Revolution, Transnational Relations, and Sustainable 
Development in the Global South by
Rodger A. Payne 
-- Global Information Infrastructure in the Eastern and Southeastern Asia 
Countries: Emerging Regulatory
Implications and Models by Chung-Chuan Yang 
-- National Identities and Grassroots Movements in Cyberspace 
-- Cultural Identity and Cyberimperialism: Computer Mediated Explorations 
of Ethnicity, Nation and Citizenship
by Laura B. Lengel and Patrick D. Murphy 
-- Whose Empowerment?: NGOs Between Grassroots and Netizens by Ellen S. 
-- Implications of the Information Revolution for Africa: Cyber-hype or 
Cyber-hope by Roger G. White 
-- Negotiating National Identity and Social Movement in Cyberspace: 
Natives and Invaders on the Panama-L
Listserve by Leda Cooks 

Graham, Stephen. "Bridging urban digital divides? urban polarisation and information and communications technologies (ICTs)." Urban Studies (University of Glasgow), Vol. 39, No. 1, Jan. 2002, pp. 33-56.

Hafkin, Nancy and Nancy Taggart, Gender, Information Technology, and Developing Countries: An Analytic Study For USAID's Office of Women in Development, June 2001 [This publication is available to download in PDF format.]

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY (HTML) [long!]: Information technology (IT) has become a potent force in transforming social, economic, and political life globally. Without its incorporation into the information age, there is little chance for countries or regions to develop.....

Hudson, Heather E., Access to the Digital Economy: Issues in Rural and Developing Regions," [rtf file] May 1999 Conference "Understanding the Digital Economy", Washington D.C.

Janelle, Donald G. and D.C. Hodge, eds., Information, Place and Cyberspace: Issues in Accessibility. N.Y.: Springer, 2000. Contents

Lax, Stephen, ed., Access Denied in the Information Age. Macmillan (Palgrave), 2001.

"Recognising that information and communications technologies undoubtedly offer many potential benefits, the authors ... judge them in the context of a world in which gender inequality persists, private interests continue their encroachment on public spaces, and talk of redistribution of wealth (both global and local) has all but disappeared from the mainstream political agenda."

Leigh, Andrew and Robert D. Atkinson, Clear Thinking on the Digital Divide Progressive Policy Institute, Policy Report, June 26, 2001

"Instead of subsidizing computer purchases and Internet access for individuals, government should work in partnership with the private sector to support access to computers and the Internet in schools, community centers, and other public places."

Norton, R.D. The Geography of the New Economy. The Digital Divide

.... it turns out that new economies have emerged in the U.S. and world economies about every half-century or so. Today's New Economy, in other words, is one of a progression of new economies over the past two centuries, beginning with the high Industrial Revolution in Britain in the late 1700s....

Novak, Thomas P. and Donna L. Hoffman Bridging the Digital Divide: The Impact of Race on Computer Access and Internet Use; by Project 2000, Vanderbilt University, February 2, 1998 [This Working Paper is a longer version of the article, "Bridging the Racial Divide on the Internet," published in Science, April 17, 1998.]

OECD, The Digital Divide: Enhancing Access to ICTs, OECD Headquarters Paris, 7 December 2000

This Workshop examined access and pricing trends related to the digital divide within and across OECD countries, focusing in particular on ICT access, use and impacts.
The Workshop addressed six broad topics:
  1. To what extent is there a "digital divide" measured across OECD countries and within OECD countries?
  2. How big is the divide, how rapidly is it changing, and in what directions?
  3. To what extent are different social, cultural, business and spatial characteristics important?
  4. To what extent are rapidly diffusing new technologies reducing or changing the nature of the digital divide?
  5. What are the responses of governments, firms, workers and individuals to issues raised by the divide?
  6. How can we improve the common information base on the digital divide?

Perelman, Michael. Class Warfare in the Information Age. Palgrave, 1998 (Paperback 2000).

Quay, Ray. Bridging the Digital Divide Reprinted from Planning magazine, ) 2001 by the American Planning Association.

Most of us think the divide is the gap between the technology "haves" and "have-nots," presumably white, wealthy, and urban Americans with computers and Internet access on the one hand and minority, poor, and rural Americans who lack computers and web access on the other. But we need to look closer....

Sassen, Saskia, Electronic Space and Power, Urban Technology. 4(1), April 1997, 1-17

Schiller, Herbert I., Information Inequality : The Deepening Social Crisis in America. Routledge 1996.

U.S. Department of Commerce (1999): Falling through the Net: Defining the Digital Divide

Waddel, Cynthia.

For your information, my paper, "The Growing Digital Divide in Access for People with Disabilities: Overcoming Barriers to Participation," has been republished by the World Economic Development Congress for the 9/99 World Bank/IMF Summit as well as for the Official Business Briefings of the United Nations Economic Forum in Geneva last June 2000. It has also be cited by governments around the world and is currently undergoing translation in a number of foreign languages.

Waddell, Cynthia, Questions about Electronic Signature Bill: Will Everyone Be Able to Participate?

Waddell, Cynthia, Applying the ADA to the Internet: A Web Accessibility Standard [June 1998]


Wresch, William. Disconnected : Haves and Have-Nots in the Information Age Paperback - 288 pages (November 1996) Rutgers Univ Press; [ISBN: 0813523702]

Zehr, Mary Ann, Poorer Schools Still Lagging Behind On Internet Access, Study Finds, Education Week, February 23, 2000

While nearly every school in the United States is now connected to the Internet, the most impoverished schools are falling further behind when it comes to online access in classrooms, according to a federal study released last week.

Return to Econ & Bus Geog
2001 []