Economic Geography Glossary



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- K -

Kabushiki kaisha (jp) = incorporated company (kaisha = company)


Continuous improvement (part of organizational learning in Japanese companies) [Hayter, p.373]


"Just-in-time" system (Japanese)

a Japanese expression for "a condition in which psychologically unsound work practices are allowed to continue in such a way that disrupts the worker's normal work and life rythm leading to a buildup of fatigue... and a chronic condition of overwork... finally resulting in a fatal breakdown." (Source: Rifkin, End of Work, p.186)


Japanese enterprise groups:
  1. former zaibatsu
    • Mitsui
    • Mitsubishi
    • Sumitomo
  2. Others:
    • Fuyo (Fuji Bank)
    • Sanwa
    • Dai-Ichi

Keizai chiri (jp) = Economic Geography (keizai=economy)

Kinyu keiretsu (jp) = group of firms organized around a large commercial bank

Knowledge Conversion
"Our dynamic model of knowledge creation is anchored to a critical assumption that human knowledge is created and expanded through social interaction between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge." (Nonaka & Takeuchi, The Knowledge-Creating Company, p.61)

Nikolai Kondratieff

Russian economist promoting "long-wave theory" (Healey & Ilbery, p.15)

KONDRATIEV WAVES or CYCLES: (Kondratiev, 1926)
refers to "long waves" lasting approx. 50 years, each being "associated with particularly significant technological changes around which other innovations... cluster and ultimately spread through the economy" (Dicken, Global Shift, p.20)

Krugman, Paul

Geography & Trade and Krugman's more recent book on Development, Geography, and Economic Theory (1995)

Kyoho Kai

Association of Co-Development with Toyota Motor, founded in 1939, consisting of about 25 'first-tier' parts suppliers largely based in Tokyo. After WWII the association was expanded and regionally divided. [see Hayter, p.355 for more detail]

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