Economic Geography Glossary



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Torsten Hagerstrand: Swedish geographer (Lund)

interested in, among many other subjects in Human Geography (including migration, diffusion), the interdependence of temporal and spatial facets in human behavior. (Goodall, p.471 - "time geography") [See also: Time Geography (Resources) and Coupling constraints

Hagerstrand's scheme ("time-space prism") is a particularly useful conceptual preparation for the analysis of behaviors which include trade-offs (substitutions) between expenditures of time and other resources ($$) used "to get there" and those spent "to be there", as is typically the case in recreational and tourist travel and destination decisions.
Torsten Hagerstrand: Time Geography (CSISS, Santa Barbara) [by John Corbett]

High-Tech Industries or Activities

The National Science Foundation, in a recent report, Chapter 6: Industry, Technology, and Competitiveness in the Marketplace defined high-tech industries on the basis of R&D intensities calculated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. "The identification of those industries considered to be high-tech has generally relied on a calculation comparing R&D intensities. R&D intensity, in turn, has typically been determined by comparing industry R&D expenditures and/or numbers of technical people employed (i.e., scientists, engineers, technicians) to industry value added or to the total value of its shipments." See also "technology-based industry".


Host-country government [see Hayter, 1997, p.171 for more]

Hierarchy (e.g. of central places)


Tributary (factor-supply or product-market) area of a heartland, central region, city or port. A hinterland is delineated by the (inter-)dependency relationships with the core region. [Also: Dictionary of Geography]

Horizontal integration

Corporate mergers involving competing firms producing the same or similar production at the same stage of production. Such mergers tend to reduce competition in the market of such products.

Harold Hotelling

Former Harvard economist (M.A. from UW) who among other contributions, published a famous paper (in 1929) on the stability of spatial competition for the spatial duopoly (competition involving two competitors). "Ice-cream-vendor-on-the-beach" model. (Goodall, p.214)
What would happen to his famous "ice-cream-vendors-on-the beach" solution ("equilibrium") if a third vendor would enter the scene?
The 3rd competitor, under rigorous conditions, will crowd-in one of the other two competitors who will then jump and start a musical chair dance up and down the beach: No stable equilibrium solution is possible. (Unless one would build-in a function for tiring out or increasing muscle aches or decreasing competitive spirit and willingness to sit down over a beer and divide up the market -- hoping that the Justice Department will not hear about it).


Human Resource Development

Hub-and-Spokes System

  1. In Transportation [See: Air Transport Resources
  2. In Spatial Organization Theory (Networks) [See: A. Markusen]

Human agency

Reference to the independent decision-making intentions, opportunities, capabilities and activities of human beings. [for more see Johnston, pp.256-7]

Hypertextually organized book:
Such a book may have the following introduction: This is a book designed "to reward browsing in any direction. Cross-references, for example, point out meaningful links. Zoom in where you feel engaged. Here are some starting points: ...." (Senge et al., Fieldbook, p.7)

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