VIPs in Economic Geography:

1912 - 1976

Edward L. Ullman

Professor of Geography

Ed's Professional Life in the Geography Department of the University of Washington:
  • Arrival in the Department "Ed Ullman brought with him a three years research commitment financed by the ONR; later he joined the Stanford project on the Philippines and conducted extensive research in Sardinia. He directed the Meramec Basin Research project in St. Louis, and the Washington Center for Metropolitan Studies in Washington, DC."

  • 1970 (11th) President of Western Regional Science Association

  • Involvement with Urban Studies and Regional Science

  • Geography Library In a December 6, 1951 memorandum of agreement, Edward Ullman (then chair of the Geography Library Committee) and Bauer outlined the operational parameters for the establishment of the Geography Library (Betsy Wilson).

  • AAG 1974 (in Seattle)

  • Ed Ullman died in 1976 at the age of 63 and left a major gap in the department, ... mostly because of his pioneering research and advocacy of geography. ... He served as associate dean of the UW Graduate School from 1962 to 1965 and directed the Center for Urban and Regional Research in 1968/69. In 1974 President Nixon appointed him to the Board of directors of Amtrak.... The department honored him by naming the Geography Library as Edward L. Ullman library and established an endowment fund for support of graduate student in his name.

    Most of these ("clickable") links lead to: Joseph Velikonja, "Geography at the University of Washington," Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers 56(1994)


Urban Geography, Vol.18, No. 1, 1997, Special Issue: Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman, "The Nature of Cities": A Fiftieth Year Commemoration, Editor, Robert W. Lake

Introduction: Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman, "The Nature of Cities": A Fiftieth Year Commemoration (Robert W. Lake)

Commemoration and Criticism: Fifty Years After the Publication of Harris and Ullman's "The Nature of Cities" (John Agnew)

Harris and Ullman's "The Nature of Cities": The Paper's Historical Context and its Impact on Further Research (Elisabeth Lichtenberger)

"The Nature of Cities" and Urban Geography in the Last Half Century (Chauncy D. Harris)

Boyce, Ronald R., ed., ; foreword by Chauncy D. Harris. Ullman, Edward Louis, 1912-1976: Geography as spatial interaction. Seattle : University of Washington Press, 1980. xix, 231 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. Includes index. Bibliography: p. 223-225. [Suzzallo General Stacks: G116 .U44]

Eyre, J.D., ed., A Man for all Regions: The Contributions of Edward L. Ullman to Geography. (Papers of the Fourth Carolina Geographical Symposium. 1977. [Contributors: Boyce, Browning, Getis, Ginsburg, Harris, Mayer, Morrill, Zelinsky]

Selected Citations:

  • Edward Ullman's colleagues and friends, under the leadership of Ron Boyce, published a book of his works in 1970 under the title of Geography as Spatial Interaction (Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1980).

  • The Division of Territory in Society copyright © 1995,1996,1997 by Ed Stephan. CHAPTER 9 Time-Minimization and Other Laws. The concentric zone model is almost always followed in textbooks with more recent modifications, notably Hoyt's "Sector Model"[10] and the Harris and Ullman "Multiple Nuclei Model".

  • GLICK, Thomas F., Geo crítica 55. Antes de la revolución cuantitativa: Edward Ullman y la crisis de la geografía en Harvard Col-lecció: GEO CRÍTICA-55 || also here

  • Spatial Interaction ... The American geographer Edward Ullman conceptualized ... spatial interaction among regional economies. Three principles are involved: complementarity, transferability, and intervening opportunity.... [ (disconnected)]

Papers & Publications:

Mobile: Industrial Seaport and Trade Center. University of Chicago, 1943, vii-167 pp., maps. (Several portions adopted by others and reprinted in slightly different form as: Mobile: An Economic Appraisal. Bureau of Business Research, University of Alabama, l949. A portion was reprinted as "The City of Mobile, Alabama," in English: Selected Readings. Vol. 1. University of Chicago Press, September 1951.

An Economic Analysis of Philippine Domestic Transportation (with R. 0. Shreve, H.E. Robison, R. K. Arnold, J. W. Landregan, and J. A. McCuniff). Prepared for the National Economic Council of the Republic of the Philippines. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Cal if., January 1957, 7 vols. 1129 pp. (sole author of sections on Forests, Minerals, Manufacturing, Trade Centers, and Passenger Movements, Vol. II, pp. 239-339; The Demand for Transportation: Commodity Flows and Passenger Movements, and section on Forest Products Potential for Extension of Manila Railroads, pp. 82-93).

American Commodity Flow: A Geographical Interpretation of Rail and Water Traffic Based on Principles of Spatial Interchange. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1957, xxii- 215 pp. Second printing, 1959; Third printing, 1967.

The Meramec Basin: Water and Economic Development (with Ronald Boyce and Donald J. Vo~ St. Louis and Meramec Basin Corporation, Kirkwood, Mo. Washington University Press, 1962, 3 vols. and appendices, c. 600 pp. (sole author, V. II, "Economy and Character of the Basin," 260 pp V. III, "Water Needs and Problems," 230 pp; appendices, c. 250 pp.)

The Economic Base of American Cities (with Michael Dacey and Harold Brodsky). Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1969, vii - 112 pp. Revised and Enlarged, 1971, 143 pp.

"The Historical Geography of the Eastern Boundary of Rhode Island." Research Studies of the State College of Washington IV (1936): 67-87.

"A Regional Planning Report on the Pacific Northwest." Geographical Review 27 (July 1937): 236-L+0.

"Political Geography in the Pacific Northwest." Scottish Geographical Magazine LIV (1938): 236-40

"The Eastern Rhode Island-Massachusetts Boundary Zone." Geographical Review XXIX (April 1939): 291-302.

"The Port of Mobile." University of Alabama Business News XI, No. 5 (January 1941).

"A Theory of Location for Cities." American Journal of Sociology XLVI (May 1941): 853-64. (Reprinted in P. K. Hatt and A. J. Reiss, Jr., eds. Reader in Urban Sociology. Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press, 1951, pp. 12-132; P. K. Hatt and A. J. Reiss, Jr., ads. Cities and Society: The Revised Reader in Urban Sociology. 1957, pp. 227-36; in: Harold Mayer and Clyde Kohn, eds. Reader in Urban Geography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959, Pp 202-09; in Library of Urban Affairs. New York: Praeger, 1967, 16 pp.; in W. H. Leahy, D. L. McKee and R. D. Dean. Urban Economics. New York, 1970, pp. 105-16; in Robert 0. Putnam, Frank V. Taylor and Philip G. Kettle, eds. A Geography of Urban Places: Selected Readings. Toronto: Methuen Publications, 1970, pp. 58-73; and in Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series in Geography, 1968.)

"Factors Affecting the Railroad Traffic Pattern." Railway Age 126 (May 7, 1949): 910-13.

"Mapping the World's Ocean Trade - A Research Proposal." The Professional Geographer, New Series, Vol. 1 (May 1949): 40-44

"The Nature of Cities" (with Chauncy D. Harris) in "Building the Future City." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 242 1Novemb~~~~5): 7-17. (Reprinted in P. K. Hatt and A. V. Reiss, Jr., eds. Reader in Urban Sociology. Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press, 1951, pp. 223~2; in P. K. Hatt and A. J. Reiss, Jr., eds. Cities and Society: The Revised Reader in Urban Sociology. 1957, pp. 237-47; in Harold Mayer and Clyde Kohn, eds. Reader in Urban Geography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959, pp. 277-86; in Allgemeine Stadtgeographie. Darmstadt, 1968; in Robert 0. Putnam, Frank J. Taylor and Philip 0. Kettle, eds. A Geography of Urban Places: Selected Readings. Toronto: Methuen Publications, 1970, pp. 91-101; and in Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series in Geography, 1968.)

"The Railroad Pattern of the United States." Geographical Review XXXIX (April 1949): 242-56. (Reprinted in Readings in the Geography of North America. New York: American Geographical Society, 1952, pp. 414-29; and in Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series in Geography, 1968.)

"The Railroads of the United States." Geographical Review XXXIX (April 1949): 324-25.

Maps of Metropolitan Boston. The Boston Globe, 1949, published in four editions. Included streets, culture, population density and shopping centers (36" x 45" at a scale of 1:42,240).

"Maps of State-to-State Freight Movement for 13 States of the United States in 1948." ONR Report No. 3 (June 1951).

"Flow Maps of U.S. Ocean Borne Foreign Trade l93~' (with A. E. Binke, E. A. Schmitz and J. C. Ransome). ONR Report No. 4, Harvard (June 1951), 5 pp. and 12 maps.

"Rivers as Regional Bonds: The Columbia-Snake Example." Geographical Review XLI (April 1951): 210-25.

The Railroads of the United States Classified According to Capacity and Im-portance. New York: Simmons-Boardman Publishing Co., January 1951. Map classifying all rail lines quantitatively into seven categories (50'x 34").

"Advances in Mapping Human Phenomena." ONR Report No. 5 (June 1951), 14 pp. and 3 pp. of maps.

"The Basic-Service Ratio and the Areal Support of Cities." Proceedings, Western Committee on Regional Economic Analysis, Social Science Research Council, Berkeley, 1953, pp. 110-23; also in Yearbook, Association of Pacific Coast Geographers, Vol. 15 (1953), pp. 47-48 (Abstract).

"Economies of Scale and Western Development" (with John A. Guthrie). Proceed-ings, Western Committee on Regional Economic Analysis (1953), pp. 90-92.

"Toward a More Analytical Economic Geography: The Study of Flow Phenomena" (with Walter Isard). Annals of the Association of American Geographers XLI (June 1951): 179 (Abstract). Paper read to the Association of American Geographers, Chicago, March 1951. Preliminary offset edition released as ONR Report No. 1 (Research Project in Transportation Geog-raphy and Regional Inter-Relations), Harvard University, June 1951, 23 pp.))

"Are Mountains Enough?" Professional Geographer 5 (July 1953): 5-8.

"Human Geography and Area Research." Annals of the Association of American Geographers XLIII (March ~ Paper read to Inter-disciplin-ary Area Studies Symposium, Association of American Geographers, August 7, 1952.

"Urban Geography" (with Harold Mayer). American Geography: Inventory and Prospect. Syracuse University Press and Association of American Geographers, 1954 pp. 142-66.

"Transportation Geography" (with Harold M. Mayer). Ibid., pp. 310-32.

"Amenities as a Factor in Regional Growth." Geographical Review XLIV (January 1954): 119-32. Also in slightly revised form, in Arizona Business and Economic Review 3 (April 1954). Reprinted in Bobbs-Merrill Re-print Series in Geography, 1968. Formed the basi for the editorial "Climate as Well as Job Opportunity Decides Where Americans Will Settle," Saturday Evening Post (June 5, 1954), p. 12.

"Amenities and Regional Growth: A Hypothesis." Paper read to XVII International Geographical Congress, Washington, D.C. 1952; abstract published in Abstracts of Papers and the paper by title only in Proceedings, p. 509 of the Congress. Reprinted in Fred E. Dohrs and Lawrence N. Sommers, eds. Economic Geography: Selected Readings. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1970, pp. 286-99.

"Regional Structure and Arrangement." ONR Report No. 10 (Research Project in Transportation Geography and Regional Inter-Relations), University of Washington, December 1954, 24 pp.

"Transportation Geography" (with Harold M. Mayer). ONR Report No. 9 (March 1954), 19 pp.

"Geography as Spatial Interaction." Interregional Linkages (Proceedings, Western Committee on Regional Economic Analysis, Social Science Re-search Council). Berkeley, California, 1954, pp. 63-71. Paper pre-sented to Association of American Geographers, Philadelphia, April 12, 1954: Annals of the Association of American Geographers XLIV (September 1954): 283-84 (Abstract).

"A New Force in Regional Growth." Proceedings, Western Area Development Con-ference (Stanford Research Institute), San Francisco, No. 17, l95~ ~-7l.

"American Commodity Flow: The Cases of Iowa, Connecticut and Washington." Die Erde. Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin (Special Issue on the United States, publication of the Berlin Geographical Society), Heft 2, 1955, pp. 129-64 (in German). Also ONR Report No. 12, 18 pp.

"American Commodity Flow and Rail Traffid' (with others). ONR Report No. 15 (August 1955), 14 pp., c. 66 pp. of maps.

"Advances in Mapping Human Phenomena." Annual Report, National Research Council, 1952. (Abstract). (Paper read to Division of Geology and Geography, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., April 28, 1952).

"The Role of Transportation and the Bases for Interaction." Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth, published for the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research and the National Science Foundation University of Chicago Press, 1956, pp. 862-80. (Reprinted in J. Blunden, C Brook, 0. Edge, and Alan Hay. Regional Analysis and De-velopment. The Open University. New York: Harper & Row, 1973, pp. 52-65; and in Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series in Geography, 1968. [Glossary]

"Sardinia: A Project for Economic Rehabilitation." News Bulletin, Institute of International Education, Ful bright Program issue, Vol. 33, No. 7 (March 1958), pp. 36-42.

"Occupational Structures and Economic Base of Oristano (Sardinia) ." Mimeo-graphed, November 21, 1958, 17 pp.

"Regional Development and the Geography of Concentration." Papers and Proceedings, Regional Science Association 4 (1958): 179-98. (Reprinted as "Lo Sviluppo Regionale e la Geografia della Concentrazione con Particolare Riguardo agli Stati Uniti." Bolletino della Societa Geografica Italiana, Nos. 6-8 (July-August, 1959),.pp. 3-23; in John Friedman and William Alonzo, eds. Readings in Regional Development. MIT Press, 1964, pp. 153-72; and in Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series in Geography, 1968.

"Sources of Support for the San Francisco Bay Area Economic Base." Office of Area Development, U.S. Department of Commerce. Future Development of the San Francisco Bay Area 1960-2020. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1959, pp. 29-33 and 34-40.

"Trade Centers and Tributary Areas of the Philippines." Geographical Review L (April 1960): 203-18.

"Geographic Theory and Underdeveloped Areas." Norton S. Ginsburg, ed. Essays on Geography and Economic Development. Research Paper No. 62, Department of Geography, University of Chicago, March 1960, pp. 26- 32.

"The Minimum Requirements Approach to the Urban Economic Base" (with Michael F. Dacey). Papers and Proceedings, Regional Science Association 6 (1960): 175-94. Paper presented to American Statistical Association and Regional Science Association, December 27, 1959; abstract pub-lished in Summaries of Papers, ASA, Washington, D.C., 1959, pp. 12-13. Also in Proceedings IOU Symposium in Urban Geography, Lund 1960 (Lund Studies in Geography, Series B, No.24, edited by Knut Norb~, pp. 121-43. See also discussion on "Expansion of Urban Areas," Ibid., pp. 596-600. Reprinted in Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series in Geography, 1968.

"An Operational Model for Predicting Reservoir Attendance and Benefits: Im-plications of a Location Approach to Water Recreation" (with Donald J. Volk). Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters XLVII (1962): 473-84.

"Theory and Practice of Economic Regionalization in the United States." Economic Regionalization, Documentacja Geograficzna. Zeszyt, Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences, 1962, pp. 90-97

"The Nature of Cities Reconsidered." Papers and Proceedings, Regional Science Association 9 (1962): 7-23. (Reprinted in H. W. Eldredge. Taming Megalopolis, Vol. 1. New York: Anchor, Doubleday, 1967, pp. 71-93; in Library of Urban Affairs. New York: Praeger, 1967; i W. H. Leahy, David L. McKee and Robert J. Dean, eds. Urban Economics. New York, 1970, pp. 3-20; and in part in Ekistics (1964), pp. 413-15.)

"If, in general, each of the largest cities on the average have been growing somewhat more, what is the explanation? No pat answer is possible but the following three factors may be involved:
  1. Mere size attracts size -- a mass, gravity effect; the larger the center the more innovators, the more persons who have relatives and friends who are attracted as inmigrants, etc.,
  2. The external economies of larger centers provide a greater range of interdependent specialities and facilities.
  3. A relative improvement in internal, urban transit has occurred, primarily because of the short haul advantages of the auto and truck; this latter factor has been particularly significant in the expansion of urban area..."

"Comments on Regional Planning." Regional Planning, Proceedings of a Conference at the University of North Carolina, 1965, edited by Maynard Hufschmidt, c. 5 pp.

"Discussion on Regional Applications." Geographica Polonica I (1964): 193-94.

"A Measure of Water Recreation Benefits: The Meramec Basic Example." Proceed-ings, Water Resources Conference, Department of Civil Engineering, Center for Urban and Regional Studies, University of Washington, Seattle, 1964.)

"Geographical Prediction and Theory: The Measurement of Recreation Benefits in the Meramec Basin." Saul B. Cohen, ed. Problems and Trends in American Geography. New York: Basic Books, 1967, pp.l24-45. Presented initially in the Voice of America Forum Series, U.S. Information Service, 1966.

Trends in Central Business District Sales in the Nation and in the Nation's Capital (with Verrick French and Carol S. Meyers). Washington Center for Metropolitan Studies, April 1967, pp. 1-25.

The Economic Base of the 101 Largest Cities of the United States (with Harold Brodsky and Michael Dacey). Washington Center for Metropolitan Studies, Washington, D.C., 1968.

"Importance of Data on Commodity Movements" and "Inadequacy of U.S. Transport Flow Statistics." Herbert 0. Whitten, ed. Transport Flow Data: Pro-ceedings of the National Transportation Flow Statistics Forum, June 27-29, l968. Washington, D.C.: Transportation and Logistics Research Center, American University, 1968, pp. 8, 82 and 153-56.

"The Substance and Scope of Regional Planning" and "Role of Technique, Principles and Concepts in Regional Planning." Maynard M. Hufschmidt, ed. Regional Planning: Challenge and Prospects. New York, 1969, pp. 22-25 and 58-61.

"The Primate City and Urbanization in Southeast Asia: A Preliminary Speculation." SEADAG Papers on Problems of Development in Southeast Asia, No. 31. New York: The Asia Society, 1968; 9 pp. (Paper presented at a meeting of the SEADAG Urban Development Seminar in New York on February 17, 1968.)

"Minimum Requirements after a Decade: A Critique and an Appraisal." Economic Geography 44 (1968): 364-69.

"The Urban Problem and the University." University of Washington Report, Vol. I, No. 2 (April 27, 1970), pp. 6-8. (Also Occasional Paper, No. 1, Urban and Research Center, University of Washington, 1969).

"The Pacific Northwest Community: Austerity, Amenity, and Higher Education." University of Washington Business Review XXX (Spring 1971): 14-24.

"The City and Environmental Quality, Especially Air Pollution Sources and Costs." Der Mensch und die Biosphäre, Verlag Dokumentation Pullach bei München, 1974, pp. l0-27. (Proceedings, UNESCO Conference (No. 20) on Man and the Biosphere, Bonn, Germany, June 15, 1971).

"Space and/or Time." Acta Geografica Lovaniensia (Institut de ge'ographie, Universite' catholique de Louvain) 12: 1-14.

"Space and/or Time: Opportunity for Substitution and Prediction." Transac-tions, Institute of British Geographers, No. 62 (November 1974), pp. 125-39.

"Ecology and Spatial Analysis." Annals Association of American Geographers 63 (1973): 272-74.

"Inter-City Ground Passenger Transportation." Papers and Summaries Presented at the Symposium on Transportation Issues, The Mitre Corporation, McLean, Virginia, October 1, 1975, pp. 146-53

Selected Reviews:

Review: S. B. Jones. "Boundary Making." Political Science Quarterly 62 (March 1947): 147-49.

Review: E. C. Kirkland. "Men, Cities and Transportation." Journal, American Institute of Planners 14 (1968): 50-51

"Teaching Geography." New York Times, Editorial page, January 7, 1951.

1912 - 1976

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