Geography of the Information Economy
Reading- and Resource Lists:
- Literature in Information
- Geography of
- Literature in
Telecommunications and Information Technology
Readings for 498 (Internet) Workshop, Winter 2001
- Location & Cyberspace
Information Technology News (Directory)
- Geography & the Internet
Outline of Topics:
- Economic Geography, Information & the Information Economy
- Data, Information and Knowledge
Information as an economic "good"
- Geography of Information
- Asymmetrical Information Distribution
Nobel Prize Statement for Mirrlees and Vickrey, 1996
- Uncertainty and Uncertainty Responses
- Nature of Uncertainty
- Responses to Uncertainty
- Uncertainty as a Location and Planning Factor
- Decision Analysis in Complex Organizations & Environments
Disclosure of Information and Corporate Secrecy (Bibliography &
- Information Strategies, Knowledge Management & Organizational
- Business Geographics
- Information Agreements between Competing and Collaborating
Organizations [incl. Anti-Trust Implications - "information cartels"]
(O'Brien & Swann)
- Communications and Organizational Structures
- Communications, Hierarchies and (De-)Centralization
- "Social disassembly of organizations" (Singer, 1986, p.222); "The
boundaries of the traditional organization are crumbling." (Taylor, 1981,
p.10); Decrease in the proportion of intraorganizational messages
compared with interorganizational ones (Leduc, 1979, p.241); Company
boundaries are no longer "the most meaningful system boundaries" (Kaufman,
1966, p.141); "They lose their distinctiveness; the borders separating
organization from organization, organization from non-organization,
dissolve." (Singer, 1986, p.222)
- Information, Communications and
Organization Theory (under construction)
- Knowledge Creation and
Learning in Organizations
Networks and Organizational Intranets
[infoaccess.html] Information Access
& Delivery Services: A Strategic Direction for Research Libraries
The mission of the Association of Research Libraries is to shape and
influence forces affecting the future of research libraries in the
process of scholarly communication.
- Information Economy: Information Activities, Firms and
- Information intensity of economic activities (Drennan, 1989)
- Knowledge producing industries (Machlup, 1962)
- Primary vs. Secondary information sectors (Porat and Rubin, 1977)
- Primary information sector activities participate directly in the
information market place. They include education, the communications
media, information service, the manufacturing of "information machines"
- Secondary information activities are those required for the production
of non-information goods and services.
- Quaternary and Quinary Activities (Szplett, 1984)
- Quaternary Activities: "the collection, receipt, recoding, arranging,
storage, retrieval, exchange, dissemination, and interpretation of
information and ideas" (used to control, coordinate, integrate, and plan
- Quinary Activities: creation, assembly, rearrangment, and
interpretation of new and old information and ideas; innovative activities
related to methods of data interpretation; also: derivation,
implementation and evaluation of new techniques;
[colleges, universities, think tanks, research institutes, planning
agencies, consulting firms]
- The Size of the Knowledge Sector:
|Machlup (1962)||USA, 1958|| 29% of GNP|
|Machlup (1962)||USA, 1959||32% of
|Rubin&Taylor (1984)||USA, 1980|| 34% of
|Komatzuzakt||Japan, 1960|| 29.5% of GNP|
|Komatzuzakt||Japan, 1979|| 35.4% of GNP|
|OECD (1981)*||Australia, 1978/79|| 14.8% of
|OECD (1981)*||France/ USA, 1978/79|| 24.8% of
* refer only to primary information activities
Source: OECD, Employment and Growth in the Knowledge-based Economy
- High proportion of information occupations in producer service
activities (Hepworth et al., 1987: in Britain: 85%)
- High-Tech Economic
Small Business &
- The Information Revolution and the Cities
- Information, Knowledge Capital & Regional Economic
- Digital Opportunity Channel
[Launched May 2002]
a joint endeavour of OneWorld and the Digital Divide Network. This global
portal will highlight uses of information and communication technologies
(ICTs) for sustainable development. The content in this portal will be
collected from thousands of organisations around the world working in the
field among marginalized and poor communities.
the International Conference on Information Technology, Communications and
In the years since the development of the world wide web, an increasing
number of people also in developing countries have been using information
communication technology (ICT) to bring about change in their work methods
and environment and to speed up the development process.
Development organizations, NGOs, media houses, government agencies,
schools and many individuals make use of ICT in one way or another. Yet,
many questions are to be asked.
2001 Conference Papers
Next Conference: December 1-3, 2002, Kathmandu, Nepal.
[0053.html] Donald M.Lamberton, "INFORMATION:
PIECES, BATCHES OR FLOWS? A Schumpeterian Approach", August 1997 ||
Telecommunications & Informatics Division (IENTI), a part of the
and Energy Department (IEN) within the World Bank's Vice Presidency for
Finance and Private Sector Development.
"IENTI's mission is to bring the opportunities of the information age to
emerging economies, and to assist them in becoming part of the global
economy. IENTI carries out its mission by means of loans and guarantees to
developing countries, by advice and assistance with telecommunications
sector reform and national information infrastructure strategies, and
through its Information for Development (infoDev) Program."
INFORMATION FOR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
"With the rapid technological and economic innovations we are witnessing
today, the information revolution holds inestimable promise for people in
emerging economies. But to leapfrog into the future, developing countries
need a place where information on building an infrastructure, accessing
social services, organizing production and creating an investor-friendly
environment can be shared. Economic growth needs knowledge. The more
knowledge is shared, the more growth is generated in industrialized as
well as emerging nations."
KNOWLEDGE FOR DEVELOPMENT (June 30, 1997 version)
"The World Bank's 1998 World Development Report will be on
Knowledge for Development. Presented here, to invite comments, is an
annotated provisional outline. Please join the TechNet Think Tank electronic
discussion to submit your comments."
- Information (Internet)
Policies & World Bank Knowledge Initiatives in Africa
The Knowledge Economy:
Managing Financial Crises
[1998 Annual Meetings
of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group]
- Eduardo Talero and Philip Gaudette,
Harnessing Information for Development: A Proposal for a World Bank Group
"A new kind of economy - the information economy - is emerging
where trade and investment are global and firms compete with
knowledge, networking and agility on a
global basis. A corresponding new society is also emerging with
pervasive information capabilities that
make it substantially different from an industrial society: much more
competitive, more democratic, less
centralized, less stable, better able to address individual needs,
and friendlier to the environment."
iConnect ("Applying Knowledge to Development")
is a web space to share and find ways to apply knowledge and ICTs
in sustainable development. The content is from many places and partners
and it is organised in a few sections. This is the main web entrance, you
can also connect to the content by e-mail or on paper.
- Global Knowledge
GKP originally developed from several dozen organizations joining together
to sponsor the 1997 Global Knowledge Conference, "Knowledge for
Development in the Information Age".
Today, the Partnership is an evolving, global network of public, private
and not-for-profit organizations. Partners join
GKP on the basis of mutual trust,
respect, equality and commitment to the principles upheld by the GKP.
The Global Knowledge Partnership (GKP) is committed to sharing knowledge,
information, experience, and resources, as well as
collaborating on joint activities
that aim to enhance human and economic security, social equity, and
sustainable development in the information age.
MIT to Unwire the World, [WIRED April 1999]
by Jill Priluck
CAMBRIDGE, Massachusetts -- Checking
the price of hogs may never be same now
that the Media Lab is bringing wireless
technology to rural Costa Rica.
Beginning Tuesday, the lab will help set
up the first digital community center in
the largely undeveloped region of Los
- Information for Early Warning
- Knowledge Societies
- KnowNet Initiative
"The human race has entered into the new millennium. The new millennium
sees ourselves moving towards a world of greater inter-connectedness-- in
terms of flow of information, capital, goods and services, inter-twined
economies and their globalised impacts. The force (along with the others)
that is fueling this transition is Information and Communication
The advances in information and communication technology, are
re-structuring the global social economic equation - shifting from income
divide to knowledge divide."
... is a remote website designing course for
communities working towards sustainable development. Under TechKnow,
help is provided through emails to enable organisations and individuals to
design their websites absolutely free-of-cost.
- KnowNet Weaver
a KnowNet Initiative
A Tool Kit developed for Communities, Non-Governmental Organisations and
to host local knowledge on the Information Superhighway to catalyse the
process of Knowledge Networking for Sustainable Development
KnowNet Weaver enables you to create your own interactive website, give it
a domain name and host it on the
World Wide Web (WWW) absolutely free-of-cost using freeware or shareware
available on the internet.
Investing in Knowledge: Barriers to Knowledge
Societies by Vikas Nath
calls on developing
countries to apply their
knowledge resources more
Knowledge Societies- way forward for developing countries"
In what I have concluded in this recent paper
the problem with many developing countries so far has been their inability
to recognize the knowledge they possess, put a value to it and use the
power of knowledge to their growth.
- Vikas Nath
[Innovator, KnowNet Initiative]
- The Internet Society
"The Internet Society is a non-profit, non-governmental, international
professional membership organization that brings diverse interests and
factions together to hammer out reasonable solutions that generate
progress and growth for the Internet. Its more than 100 organizational and
7,000 individual members from more than 150 countries represent a
veritable who's who of the Internet community."
Communication & Economic Geography
- General Resources:
- Telecommunications Technology,
Institutions and Infrastructure
Other Readings and
Media Center at New York Law School
- Knowledge Assessment (Pacific Islands) August 1997 On-Line Conference:
Technical Panel and
Public Forum [kapubarc]
TechNet Think Tank electronic conferences are designed to foster
discussion on questions of science, technology
and information for development. We look forward to your
"The National Knowledge System of a country comprises those institutions
that control and regulate the flow and use of
knowledge in the economy and society, together with linkages among them
and with the outside world. Information may be
thought of as a transmissible form of knowledge, having a similar relation
to knowledge as currency has to wealth: a medium
of trade. Information and experience both contribute to knowledge.
Information is nothing if it is not used, but the organized
accumulation of it becomes knowledge. Knowledge itself goes beyond
transmissible information to embrace codified
knowledge, embodied knowledge and tacit knowledge and skills" (Office of
International Assessment, National Research
- Commission on
Communication Networks and Telecommunications of the
International Geographical Union [Server not consistently online]
- THE ELECTRONIC SPACE
PROJECT; Institute for Public Policy and Social Research,
Michigan State University,
"...exploring the spatial context of information technology, with
emphasis on policy, economy, and society."
- University Resources
(International) (Virtual Library)
- Open Source Solutions
"Global Security & Global Competitiveness: Open Source Solutions",
the conference--now (1996) its its fifth year, started as a means of
spys how to use publicly available information. It has evolved into the
world's only open forum and meeting ground which brings together spys,
librarians, hackers, scholars, business intelligence and law enforcement
intelligence analysts, and military intelligence analysts as well as
and private investigators. Professional tracks focus on economic and
financial intelligence; transnational and domestic law enforcement
intelligence; and military and
coalition intelligence. Technical tracks focus on sources of
information including commercial imagery; advanced tools and techniques
discovery, discrimination, distillation, and dissemination; and
opportunities for private sector sales to international government, and
government privatization of selected intelligence
Related Journals, Projects, Courses, Workshops and Syllabi:
infois an international and interdisciplinary journal
examining the social, economic,
political and regulatory aspects of telecommunications,
information and other media industries.
The Sociology of Cyberspace [McMaster U.]
EUNIT SUMMER SCHOOL ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN KNOWLEDGE BASED SOCIETIES
INFORMATION SOCIETY AND LEARNING REGIONS
[Tuesday 9 September 1997 - Friday 12 September 1997]
- Virtual Societies, Cities and Communities:
Cyberspace, MASANAO TAKEYAMA, [Faculty of
Environmental Information, Keio University at Shonan Fujisawa Campus,
The Geography of the Information Society (Buffalo, GEO 666
Michael Batty's new home at University College London
- Virtual Cities
Project at the CASA [Centre for Advanced Spatial Analyisis, University
Oregon Telecommunications Atlas
This report was assembled between November and December, 2000, under the
direction of the Oregon
Economic Development Agency to provide raw data for an Oregon
Atlas project at the University of
Oregon. This coffee-table size publication, being produced by
William Loy, Stuart Alan and Ross West
at the U/Oregon InfoGraphics Lab, will illustrate many aspects
of Oregon. It is a follow-on to their 1976
landmark Oregon Atlas.
- Pennsylvania Technology
The Technology Atlas, the first of its kind, resulted from the efforts of
the Documentation of Resources and Technology Transfer
Project, which was one of the main projects in Pennsylvania's
Georgia High-Speed Communications Atlas
This interactive atlas of fiber routes and access
facilities is designed to support state and local efforts
to attract high-technology
firms, and to support educational and public sector
initiatives for Georgia communities.
- Network Society
"I came across some interesting work ...
called the "World Link : The Network Society Map". This is an index of
"wired'ness" of major countries around the world in terms of availability
per thousand people of number of phone lines, TVs, mobile phones, Internet
hosts, PCs, etc, etc." (Martin Dodge)
[Well-presented collection of advertising-related statistics].
3D-Computing, Business Week (Cover September 4, 1995)
Bandwidth Bay Fiber Network Mapping [San Diego]
Downtown San Diego has recently been branded "Bandwidth Bay," highlighting
the miles and miles of
bandwidth inside, and beautiful waterfront bay views outside. This fitting
description captures why downtown
San Diego is "technology's perfect climate;" prepared to accommodate the
growing and changing needs of
modern high-tech industries. With over 70,000 strand miles of fiber optic
cable stretching beneath its city
streets, downtown San Diego is one of the most wired cities in the
See also this article!
Geography and the City of the future --Geography, the city and
Communication and Information Techniques. Emmanuel Eveno.
- Center for the Study of
Language and Information (Stanford) [CSLI was founded in 1983 by
researchers from Stanford University, SRI International, and Xerox PARC to
and development of integrated theories of language, information, and
- Artificial Intelligence
Applications Institute (University of Edinburgh):
"AIAI is a technology transfer
organisation that promotes and expediates the application of research on
for the benefit of industrial, commercial, government and academic
Telecommunications Data and Maps:
- Technology Atlas: A New
Pennsylvania (The State of Technology)
The Technology Atlas, the first of its kind, resulted from the
efforts of the
Documentation of Resources and Technology Transfer Project, which
was one of the
main projects in Pennsylvania's Link-to-Learn Initiative.
The Documentation of Resources and Technology Transfer Project
technologies and technological needs exist in the Commonwealth of
Top Ten International Transmission Carriers [Source: Telegeography
Hubs and Spokes: A TeleGeography Internet
Available April 2000.
$195. 106 pages.
The Guide to Global Internet
The first stand-alone publication
from TeleGeography's Internet
research group, Hubs and Spokes
updates and expands
TeleGeography's best articles to
track the shifting landscape of the
Net's global geography.
Global Communications Traffic Map [TeleGeography, Inc. May 1999
Commercial Resources & Communications Consultants:
- the New Economy
online: The Web Site of Nuala Beck & Associates Inc.
CORPORATE BRAINSCAN A Diagnostic Tool for Identifying
New Opportunities in the New Knowledge Economy
"This Web site describes a unique corporate diagnostic tool,
the CORPORATE BRAINSCAN?
which was jointly developed by the principals of Gutenberg Knowledge
Systems and The ProActive
Group, two Toronto-based consulting firms."
Gutenberg Knowledge Systems
is a division of Gutenberg Internet Services Inc. and is
concerned with corporate knowledge strategies and their
impact on organizational
development. The group is headed by Dr. Robert K. Logan,
author of ?The Fifth Language:
Learning a Living in the Computer Age?
Business Intelligence ".... is an
independent company with
a reputation for predicting
and tracking important
trends in management."
- Sveiby: Knowledge Management
"Welcome to this site devoted to creating Business from Knowledge!
The web site is maintained by Dr. Karl Erik Sveiby..... I am presently
visiting research fellow at Queensland University of Technology in
Australia and principal of my own consulting
the Knowledge Connections pages of David Skyrme Associates - pages
at giving you insights into the
emerging global networked economy, where intangible assets, such as
information and knowledge, will determine future
competitiveness. Successful organisations will make effective use of new
methods and technologies such as knowledge
management, the Internet, teleworking (telecommuting), and will operate in
- Knowledge Inc.
The Executive Report on Knowledge,
Technology and Performance (Knowledge Inc. is
a monthly executive newsletter that covers trends in information
technology and knowledge strategy.
TeleGeography, Inc. (TGI) is an independent publisher and distributor
of reports on two aspects of telegeography: international
telecommunications and the ownership of the global information
economy. Customized mapping and consulting services are also available
from TGI upon request.
The essence of
Project SCOPE's innovative, comprehensive community redevelopment concept
is the community-based telecenter--the location of the telecommunications
equipment and therefore the source of access to information and resources
for all in the community. [Return to Project Scope]
- A Global Information Services
Company; ["one of the fastest growing information
services companies in the world, providing a wealth of global
financial data to investors, financial institutions, and the media."]
Steinbeis Transfer Center IMAC (Konstanz)
....efficient information economy with flexible producers...
there should be a direct transfer of knowledge from scientific
organizations to the organizations of the information economy (e.g., hosts
and database producers, information brokers,
libraries, publishers, value-added service providers), in order to further
information-related, product-related and procedural
innovations. IMAC contributes to achieving these goals through consulting,
training, direct information brokering and project-related
Long-distance calling: How the
consumer can win the rate war
Seattle Times, Monday, Sept. 22, 1997
by Shelby Gilje
Competition among long-distance carriers
is so hot you can make a career out of studying how to get the best
deal. Some consultants do. But, cautions one: "No matter how hard you
try, you can't get the correct rates into print because
long-distance plans change so frequently. It's worse than airline fares."
Wiring rural Washington
Seattle Times, Sunday, March 2, 1997
by Thomas W. Haines,
Seattle Times business reporter
Benedict, Michael. Cyberspace: First Steps. MIT Press, 1991/92.
Breese, J., (Microsoft) Abstracts of papers on artificial intelligence
Carter, Anne P., "Measuring the Performance of a Knowledge-Based Economy,"
in: OECD. Employment Growth in the Knowledge-based Economy. Paris 1996,
Freedom to Connect, Wired, Issue 5.08 - August 1997.
"An essential component of the emerging global culture is the ability
and freedom to connect - to anyone,
anytime, anywhere, for anything...."
The Naive Geography of Cyberspace,
Department of Geography and NCGIA,
University of California,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106
Gillespie, A. E.,
Communications and Spatial Structure
"Contrary to popular predictions of their decentralizing impact,
digital communications contribute to new and
more complex forms of corporate integration, reinforcing center-periphery
problems on a global scale.
.... We contend that the "distance shrinking" characteristics of the new
communications technologies, far from
overcoming and rendering insignificant the geographical expressions of
centralized economic and political power, in fact
constituted new and enhanced forms of inequality and uneven development."
Dark Continents: A Critique of Internet
[Georgia Institute of Technology
? 1999 Terry Harpold.]
Kahin, Brian and Charles Nesson (eds.)
Borders in Cyberspace: Information Policy and the Global
"Today millions of technologically empowered
individuals are able to participate freely in
international transactions and enterprises, social and
economic. These activities are governed by national
and local laws designed for simpler times and now
challenged by a new technological and market
environment as well as by the practicalities and
politics of enforcement across national boundaries.
Borders in Cyberspace investigates issues arising
from national differences in law, public policy, and
social and cultural values as these differences are
reformulated in the emerging global information
Cyberspace: The World in the Wires.
Queen's University of Belfast, 1997/98;
John Wiley, 0-471-97862-0
Mitchell L. Moss and Anthony Townsend,
MANHATTAN LEADS THE 'NET NATION
New York City and Information Cities Hold Lead in
Internet Domain Registration
Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public
Service, New York University, August 1997
Despite predictions that new communications technologies will weaken
cities, New York City and other information-producing cities are
the primary sites of
Internet domain registration, and continue to grow as
centers for electronic information.
OECD. Employment Growth in the Knowledge-based Economy. Paris 1996.
Sveiby, Karl Erik.
The new organizational wealth : managing & measuring
San Francisco : Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 1997.
[Intangible-property -- Management.
Intangible-property -- Valuation.
Foster Business Library; HD53 .S893 1997]
Anthony Townsend (MIT/NYU): Writings available on the
web atTaub Urban Research
Center, New York University:
of the Internet in U.S.
Cities and States
April 1998, with Mitchell L. Moss.
Paper given at "Urban Future-Technological Future"
Conference at Durham,
England, April 23-25, 1998.
Transforming Urban Spaces
March 1998, with Mitchell L. Moss.
Paper given at "Telecommunications and the City"
Conference at Athens, Georgia,
March 21-23, 1998.
Transforming New York City
December 1997, with Mitchell L. Moss and Emanuel Tobier.
Published by the Taub Urban Research Center.
Manhattan Leads the
October 1997, with Mitchell L. Moss.
Published by the Taub Urban Research Center.
Twenty Million Neighbors:
An Assessment of Social conditions in the Tri-State
June 1997, data analysis and mapping.
Published by The United Way of Tri-State, Inc.
and Losers on the Internet
September 1996, with Mitchell L. Moss.
the Journal of Academic Computing at New York
of the Metropolis: The City in the Information
of design, architecture, and urbanism.
Information Economy -- Is Your City Connected?",
in the Planning
Commisioner's Journal Online, Viewpoints
United States. General Accounting Office.
Telecommunications, competitive impact of restructuring the
international satellite organizations [microform] : report
to the Chairman, Committee on Commerce, House of
Representatives / United States General Accounting Office.
Washington, D.C. : The Office ; Gaithersburg, MD (P.O. Box
6015, Gaithersburg 20884-6015) : The Office [distributor, 1996].
40 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Distributed to depository libraries in microfiche.
Shipping list no.: 97-0509-M. "July 1996.".
Includes bibliographical references.
"GAO/RCED-96-204.". "B-272095"--P. 1.
Microfiche. [Washington, D.C.] : U.S. General Accounting
Office, [1996?] 1 microfiche : negative.
Supt. of Docs. no.: GA 1.13:RCED-96-204. 970830
GA 1.13:RCED-96-204 CHECK THE SHELVES 1 microfiche
LIBRARY USE ONLY]