Zoning: Geography & Economics


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Zoning And Environmental Regulation Of Private Land

The federal government has little authority over land-use planning or zoning. In a few instances, such as the Coastal Zone Management Act, the federal government has provided incentives for state and local governments to adopt development plans that meet specific criteria...

On Zoning (Y.Y.C.)

Through zoning, a city regulates building size, population density and the way land is used. Zoning recognizes the changing demographic and economic conditions of the city and is a key tool for carrying out planning policy. New York City enacted the nation's first comprehensive zoning resolution in 1916 and the City continues to be a leader in zoning policy in the United States.

Land Use and Zoning (Resource Directory)

King County Zoning

Ottensmann, John R., Market-Based Exchanges of Rights within a System of Performance Zoning


Take the bus -- and make your point: Angry over prison across the street, Oregon man plants bright yellow protest, Seattle PI, Wednesday, January 2, 2002

... during meetings city and county officials promised to rezone the area from residential to industrial. Eaton and other residents say that would make it easier to sell their property because with the prison in the neighborhood, the area is more likely to attract warehouses and light manufacturers than people who want to own homes.


Acker, F.W. (1991) Note: Performance Zoning. Notre Dame Law Review 67: 363-401.

American Society of Planning Officials (1968) Problems of Zoning and Land Use Regulation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Babcock, Richard F. (1966), The Zoning Game, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.

Bailey, M.J., "Note on the Economics of Residential Zoning and Urban Renewal," Land Economics, (1959).

Brooks, A.V.N. (1989) The Office File Box--Emanations from the Battlefield. In C.M. Haar and J.S. Kayden (Eds.) Zoning and the American Dream, 3-27. Chicago: Planners Press.

Burton, Hal. (1954), The City Fights Back, New York: Citadel.

Chapin, F. Stuart, Jr. (1957). Urban Land Use Planning. Harper and Brothers, New York.

Clawson, M. (1971) Suburban Land Conversion in the United States. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press.

Courant, P.N., "On the Effect of Fiscal Zoning on Land and Housing Values," JUE (1977).

Diamond, H.L. and P. Noonan (1996) Land Use in America. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Duany, A. and E. Plater-Zyberk (1992) Towns and Town-making Principles, 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Graduate School of Design.

Eggers, W.D. (1990) Land Use Reform through Performance Zoning. Working paper. Santa Monica, CA: Reason Foundation.

Ellickson, R.C. (1973) Alternatives to Zoning: Covenants, Nuisance Rules, and Fines as Land Use Controls. University of Chicago Law Review 40, 4: 681-781.

Ellickson, R.C. (1991) Order Without Law: How Neighbors Settle Disputes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ellickson, R.C., and A.D. Tarlock (1981) Land-Use Controls: Cases and Materials. Boston: Little, Brown.

Fischel, W.A. (1985) The Economics of Zoning Laws: A Property Rights Approach to American Land Use Controls. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Frankena, M. and Scheffman, D., "A Theory of Development Controls in a 'Small' City," Journal of Public Economics 15, (1981), 203-234.

Garrett, M.A., Jr. (1987) Land Use Regulation: The Impacts of Alternative Land Use Rights. New York: Praeger.

Henderson, J.V.,(1985), Economic Theory and Cities, 2nd Edition, Academic Press. Chapters 3 and .5.

Henderson, J.V., "Externalities in a Spatial Context: The Case for Air Pollution," Journal of Public Economics 77, (1977), 89-110.

Kendig, L. (1980) Performance Zoning. Washington, DC: APA Planners Press.

Kmiec, D.W. (1981) Deregulating Land Use: An Alternative Free Enterprise Development System. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 130, 1: 28-130.

Kunstler, J.H. (1996) Home from Nowhere. Atlantic Monthly 278, 3: 43-66.

Mills E.S. and Oates, W., (eds.), Fiscal Zoning and Land Use Controls, Heath-Lexington, (1975).

Moore, T. (1978) Why Allow Planners to Do What They Do? A Justification from Economic Theory. Journal of the American Institute of Planners 44, 4: 387-398.

Nelson, R.H. (1977) Zoning and Property Rights: An Analysis of the American System of Land Use Regulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Nelson, R.H. (1989) Zoning Myth and Practice--from Euclid into the Future. In C.M. Haar and J.S. Kayden (Eds.) Zoning and the American Dream, 299-318. Chicago: Planners Press.

Ohls, J.C., Weisberg, R.C., and White, M.J., "The Effect of Zoning on Land Values," JUE (1974).

Pogodzinski, J.M. and T.R. Sass (1990) The Economic Theory of Zoning: A Critical Review. Land Economics 66, 3: 294-314.

Porter, D.R., P.L. Phillips, and T.J. Lassar (1988) Flexible Zoning: How It Works. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.

Reps, J.W. (1964) Requiem for Zoning. Planning 1964. Chicago: American Society of Planning Officials.

Seigan, B.H. (1977) Land Use Without Zoning. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Stackham, J. (1974) Performance Standards...a Technique for Controlling Land Use. Special Report 424. Oregon State University Extension Service.

Stull, W.J., "Land Use and Zoning in an Urban Economy," AER (1974).

Toll, Seymour I. (1969), Zoned American. Crossman, New York.

Wakeford, R. (1990) American Development Control: Parallels and Paradoxes from an English Perspective. London: HMSO.

Weaver, Clifford L. and Richard F. Babcock, (1979), City Zoning. Planners Press, Chicago.

Yannacone, V.J. Jr., J. Rahenkamp, and A.J. Cerchione (1976) Impact Zoning: Alternative to Exclusion in the Suburbs. Urban Lawyer 8, 3: 417-448.

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