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Geography 450

Location-Theoretical Traditions and Significant Concepts

(http://faculty.washington.edu/krumme/450/traditions.html)

Under Construction


This scheme was first conceived by the author in the late 1960s for use in his classes. It was revised and reprinted by M. Eliot-Hurst in his book A Geography of Economic Behavior (Duxbury 1972), pp.387-93. It is now in the process of being reworked in its entirety.
Quick Index:
  1. Four Classical Traditions in Location Theory
  2. Neo-Classical Extensions, Interpretations & Applications
  3. Urban Location, Spatial Structure and Change
  4. Optimizing with Uncertainty: Game Theory and Bayesian Analysis
  5. Time and Space in Location Theories
  6. Transitions: Oligopolistic Behaviors and Managerial Decision Strategies and Processes
  7. Behavioral Location Approaches
  8. Structural Approaches
  9. Organizational Growth & Change: Knowledge and Capital Accumulation in Time and Space: Incubators, Organizations, Institutions
  10. Location in Alternative Spaces
Supporting & Related Pages:


The Context: Implications of General Locational Trends:
  • Labor Issues
  • Employment
  • Changes / Trends / concepts to Describe such Trends
    Websites
    Literature/ Printed Readings
    Decreasing Role of Cost of Transportation; Footlooseness; Time-Space Convergence Websites? Stutz (1998) pp.184ff.
    Johnston (1994, 628-30)
    Donald G.Janelle (1991)
    Intra-Metropolitan Shift Websites? Hayter, p.65
    Communication Technology / CyberSpace / Virtual Communities / Electronic Commerce
    Flexible Technologies; Flexible Manufacturing and Flexible Organizations; "Post-Fordist" Developments Hayter, p.291-4
    Implications of Internet and Other High-Tech Developments for Regions Milken-Institute Report (1999)
    Changing role of services
    Changes in employment patterns and the nature of jobs and work
    Resources:
  • Services
    1. The Four Classical Location Traditions


      This body of classical location theory, largely based on what we would call today micro-economic equilibrium reasoning has been much maligned but still represents the bedrock of location and spatial organization theory against which all more recent suggestions are measured. The four major traditions have been summarized here

      Concepts
      Original/Early Contributors
      Subsequent Contributors
      Readings
      Location, Land Use, Market Centers and Areas J.H.von Thünen (1826)
      W. Launhardt,
      Alfred Weber (1909)
      Andreas Predoehl (1925)
      Tor Palander
      Walter Christaller (1933)
      August Lösch
      Edgar Hoover (1948)
      Walter Isard (1956)
      Melvin L. Greenhut (1956/63)
      Edwin von Böventer (1963)
      Martin Beckmann (1968)
      M.Greenhut
      M.Blaug, (1985)
      C.Ponsard (1983)
      Johnson et al. (1994)
    2. Equilibrium (p.169)
    3. Normative Theory (p.424)

      1. Johann Heinrich von Thünen and Land Use Theory
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Agricultural Land Use & Locational Rent J.H. von Thünen (1826) Brinkman (1922)
        Waibel (1933)
        Loesch (1941)
        Dunn (1952)
        William Alonso (1964)
        Johnston (1994)
      2. 672-3 (Thünen)
      3. 13-4 (Alonso)

        Stutz 1998

      4. pp.262ff. (Thünen)
      5. pp.292ff. (Alonso)

        see also list!


      6. Alfred Weber and Industrial Location Theory D.M.Smith (1966)
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Optimal Industrial Location
      7. Launhardt's Funnel Analysis
      8. Material Index
      9. Locational Triangle
      10. (Critical) Isodapane
      11. Wilhelm Launhardt (1885)
        Alfred Weber (1909)
        Tor Palander (1928)
        Walter Isard (1956)
        Leon Moses (1958)
        Stutz (1998) pp.345ff.
        see also list!


      12. Central Place Theory
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Spatial threshold
        Range of a good

        Central place functions
        Hierarchical system
        Multiple purpose trip
        Spatial demand curve
        Walter Christaller (1933);
        August Lösch (1939)
        E.L.Ullman (1941)
        Brian Berry (1958)
        W.Bunge (1962)
        Parr & Denike
        Stutz (1998) pp.311ff.
        Christaller Resources
        Retail Resources


      13. Spatial Competition and Competitive Differentiation
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Spatial competition
        stable/unstable equilibrium
        Ice-cream-vendor model
        Distance-(in)elasticity of demand
        Product as a variable
        Principle of minimum differentiation
        Hotelling (1929) E.H.Chamberlin (1936/1953)
        Lerner & Singer (1937)
        A.Smithies (1941)
        B.C.Eaton & R.G.Lipsey (1975)
        Stephen Brown (1989)
        Hotelling Resources
        Martin Beckmann (1968)
        Game Matrix


    4. Neo-Classical Extensions, Interpretations & Applications

      1. General Spatial Equilibrium (Attempts at...)
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        General equilibrium August Lösch
        Louis Lefeber (1958)
        Koopman & Beckmann (1957)
        Walter Isard (1956)
        E. von Böventer (1962)
        M.Greenhut
        M.Beckmann


      2. Spatial Pricing
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Price differentiation + discrimination in space
        Basing-point pricing
        Pittsburgh Plus
        E.Hoover (1937)
        M. Greenhut
        M.Beckmann (1968)
        Hoover, 2000-Online
        Hayter, 1997, pp.167-9
        Beckmann, 1968, pp.30-8
        Johnston, (1994, 472-3)


      3. The Retail Location Problem (Practice & Theory)
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Anchor store
        CBD
        Convenience goods
        Franchising
        High-order goods
        Market (or trade) area
        Range of a good
        Threshold size
        Theory: Christaller (1933)
        Models: Huff (1963)
        Practice:W.Applebaum (1966)
        Gosh & McLafferty(1987)
        Laulajainen (1987)
        Berry & Parr (1988)
        Jones & Simmons(1990)
        Jones & Simmons, Ch.1
        Stutz, Ch.7
        Resources
        Electronic Retailing


      4. Spatial Margin of Profitability (or Range of Tolerance)
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Spatial Margin
        Space Cost Curve
        Space Revenue Curve
        Range of Tolerance
        E.M. Rawstron (1958) D.M.Smith (1966)
        M.D.Thomas
        Johnston (1994, 578-9)
        Hayter, 1997, pp.116-7
        Stutz (1998) pp.361-2


      5. Substitution Analysis
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Substitution
        Trade-off
        Isoquants
        Transformation curves
        Optimal Input- and/or Output Combinations
        Alfred Marshall (1890)
        Andreas Predöhl (1925/28)
        Edgar Hoover (1948)
        Walter Isard (1956)
        Leon Moses (1958)
        William Alonso (1968)
        B.Beyers & G.Krumme (1974)
        Hayter, 1997, pp.117-120
        Resource List


      6. Adaption and Adoption
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Adaption
        &
        Adoption
        Natural selection argument
        A.Alchian (1950)
        M.Friedman (1953)
        Charles M.Tiebout (1957)
        Winter (1964)
        Krumme (1969)
        Hayter, 1997, p.123


      7. The Tiebout Hypothesis
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Tiebout Hypothesis
        Optimal distribution of public goods/ services among regions
        Paul Samuelson (1954)
        Charles M. Tiebout (1956)
        Thisse & Zoller
        See Tiebout Website
        Johnston, (1994, 624)


      8. Localization and External Economies
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Localization Economies
        Agglomeration economies
        External Economies of Scale & Scope
        Economies of Massed Resources
        Untraded Interdependencies
        Alfred Marshall (1890)
        E.A.G.Robinson
        E. Hoover Vernon (1963)
        A.Scott
        M. Storper
        & Many Others
        Hayter, 1997,
        P.Krugman (1991)
        Stutz, 278-80 & 363ff.
        Localization
        See also "Industrial Districts" (below)


      9. Circular Causation and Cumulative Processes: Initial Advantage, Scale Economies, Imperfect Competition
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Circular & Cumulative Causation
        Initial Advantage
        Path dependency
        Positive & Negative Feedback
        Market Potential
        Centrifugal & Centripetal Forces;
        Localization
        Urbanization
        Hurd (1911)
        R.Haig (1926)
        Charles Colby (1933)
        Chauncy Harris (1954)
        Ragnar Nurske (1953)
        Gunnar Myrdal (1957)
        Edward Ullman (1958) & (1962)
        Paul Krugman (1995)
        Chapman (1990, pp.173-7)
        Stutz, pp.348ff.
        Hayter, pp.401-2
        Johnston (1994, 192, feedback)
        Resource Page


      10. Interaction Principles; Gravity + Market Potential Models
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Bases for Spatial Interaction
        (Complementarity; Transferability; Intervening Opportunities)
        Market potential
        Social physics
        Income fronts
        G.K.Zipf (1949)
        Reilly
        Stouffer
        E.L.Ullman
        Harris (1954)
        Warntz (1965)
        Johnston (1994, 235-6, 359)
        Isard (1998, ch.6)
        Resources

      11. Rank-Size Rule
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        City-size relationships
                     
        		   -1
        	P  = =P (n)
        	 n     1
             
        Zipf (1941)
        Earlier contributions:
        Auerbach (1913)
        Christaller (1933)
        Lösch (1941)
        Vining (1955)
        Isard (1956)
        Beckmann (1958)
        Stewart (1958)
        Berry (1958)
        John Parr ( )
        Paul Krugman (1996)
        Stutz, pp.322-3
        Berry (1967), pp.76ff.


      12. Modeling and Applying Weberian Theory: Algorithms + Rules of Thumb
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Locational algorithm
        Sequential solutions
        H.Kuhn & R.Kuenne (1962)
        L.Cooper (1967)
        B&K?


      13. Multi-Plant Operations & Multi-Facility Location Problems
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Location of warehouses, plants Donald Dewey (1969)
        F.Scherer (1974)


      14. Location in Networks
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Networks, connectedness
        graph theory, nodes, centrality,
        accessibility, connectivity
        routes, redundancies
        nodal degree etc.
        Hakimi theorem
        Euler (1736)
        Koenig (1936)
        Shimbel (1953)
        S.L.Hakimi (1964)
        H.Guelicher (1965)
        William Garrison (1960)
        C.Werner
        P.Haggett
        K.Kansky
        James Campbell (1994)
        Miller et al.(1996)
        Johnston (1994, 419, 233-5, graph theory)
        Taaffe & Gauthier (1973/96)
        Bryan & O'Kelly (1999)
        Stutz, pp.173-82
        Resource Page


      15. Information Costs in Centralized & Decentralized Systems
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Overview Advantage
        Participation Potential
        Information costs:
      16. collecting
      17. processing
      18. transmitting
      19. decision-making (using) Local visibility of information
      20. Jacob Marschak (1954)
        Walter Isard (1969)
        Roy Radner (1970)
        Pred Isard (1969), Ch.3


      21. Transaction Costs
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Transaction Cost Analysis
        Opportunism
        Asset specificity
        Asymmetrical information distribution
        Holdup
        Hostage taking
        Information impactedness
        Moral hazard
        Plasticity
        Selective disclosure
        Ronald Coase (1939);
        Williamson (1975)
        K.Leffler (1991)
        Douglass North & many others

        Contra:
        Ghoshal & Moran(1996)

        Hayter, pp.320-2; p.278(r)
        Johnston (194, 639-40)
        Resources


      22. Industrial Location, Residuals and the Environmental Factor
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Substitution
        Residuals
        Recycling
        Waste processing
        Location of environmental monitoring stations
        Beyers & Krumme (1974)
        Howard Stafford (1977/85)
        J.H.Cumberland (1978)
        T.J.Bartik (1988) Literature



    5. Urban Location, Spatial Structure and Change


      1. Urban Spatial Structure
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Land use
        Rent
        Mono-centric cities
        Polycentric cities
        Edge cities
        Alfred Marshall (1890)
        William Alonso (both based on Thünen)
        R.Muth
        E.Mills
        and many others
        Anas, Arnott & Small (1998)
        Johnston (1994, 13-4, Alonso)


      2. The Third Dimension in Urban Location Theory: Height of Buildings
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Optimal height of buildings
        Three-dimensional space-use
        Georg Kohl (1850)
        Alfred Marshall (1890)

        Jean Gottmann (1966)
        Irving Hoch (1968)
        Peucker, Thomas (1968)
        The Three-Dimensional City (Resources)


      3. Other Rent Concepts and Land Taxation Issues
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Soil Fertility Rent
        Land values
        Taxation
        David Ricardo
        Henry George (1879)
        J.K.Whitaker (1997)


      4. Urban Spatial Structure: Sociology, Urban Ecology and Geography
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Concentric Zones
        Sector Theory
        Multiple Nuclei Theory
        Adna Weber (1899)
        E.Burgess (1925)
        Harris & Ullman (1945)
        Homer Hoyt (1939)
        Hoover ("Sector Differentiation")
        Brian Berry (1965)
        J.Wolpert (1967)
        Stutz, pp.286ff.


      5. Urban Density Functions
        Colin Clark was the first to discover that population densities tend to decline exponentially with distance from the city center. Newling suggested the existence of the "doughnut hole", namely a quadratic exponential function creating a density crater at the center where non-residential activities prevail. Cadwallader (1996, p.114) suggests that Newling's findings represent a late stage of dynamic density shifts.
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Population density functions
        Colin Clark (1951) (1967)
        Newling (1969)
        Muth (1969)
        J.Parr (1988)
        McDonald (1989)
        Hoover Online
        Cadwallader (1996, pp.113-122)
        Anas (1998)
        Johnston (1994, 125)


      6. Suburbanization and Urban Subcenters: The Polycentric Model
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Suburbs
        Exurbs
        Edge Cities
        C.Harris & E.L.Ullman (1945) Rodney Erickson (1986)
        Garreau (1991)
        Giuliano & Small (1991)
        Hoover (1985, Online)
        Stutz, p.287
        Cadwallader, p.66
        Anas (1998), 1439ff.


      7. Urban Sprawl
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Spread city
        Megalopolis
        Conurbation (Contiguous cities)
        Greenbelt
        Growth management
        Jean Gottmann (1961)
        Moses & Williamson (1967)
        Melvin Webber (1963) Stutz, pp.289ff.
        Cadwallader, 66-70
        Johnston (1994, 586)


      8. Directional Bias in Intra-Metropolitan Industrial Relocations and Branch Plant Locations
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Directional Bias J.Wolpert (1967);
        Krumme (1966)
        Walcott (1999)


      9. Urban Boundaries and Boundary Changes
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Fractal dimension
        Urban fringe
        R.L.Morrill (1966) M.Batty & P.Longley (1994)



    6. Optimizing with Uncertainty: Game Theory and Bayesian Analysis

      1. Uncertainty and Game Theory
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Uncertainty as Location Factor:
        Game-theoretic strategies
      2. LaPlace (equal likelihood)
      3. Savage (regret)
      4. Hurwicz (optimism)
      5. Wald (minimax) Saddle point
        Payoff matrix Prisoners' dilemma
      6. Wald (1950)
        L.J. Savage (1954)
        Luce & Raiffa (1957)
        Peter Gould (1963)
        Michael Webber (1972)
        D.Kahneman, P.Slovic & A.Tversky (1982)
        Hayter, 1997, pp.143-4
        Johnston (1994, 645, 212-3)
        Walker, Heady & Pesek (handout)


      7. Bayesian Tradition
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Subjective & Personal Probabilities
        Likelihood
        Prior probability
        Posterior probability
        Value of perfect information
        Human information processing
        Thomas Bayes (1763)
        Neumann & Morgenstern (1947)
        Savage (1954)
        Schlaifer (1959)
        King & Golledge (1969)
        Slovic & Lichtenstein (1971)
        Hayter (1975)
        L.J.King & R.G.Golledge (1969)


      8. Probabilistic & Stochastic Locational Processes & Models
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Markov Process; Diffusion; L.Collins Johnston (1994, 594-5; 359-60)


      9. Recursive (Linear) Programming and Equilibrium Processes
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Recursive Linear Programming Interpretations of Equilibrium Processes Day & Tinney (1969)


    7. Time and Space in Location Theories


      1. Location as Investment Decision
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Location as Investment
        Depreciation
        Mobility
        Retained earnings
        Reinvestment Effects
        Path dependency
        Asset specificity
        Time Horizons of Investments
        Locational Adjustments
        Industrial Inertia
        Allan Rodgers (1952)
        A.Danielsson (1964),
        Alan S. Manne (1967)
        Williamson
        Krumme (1969b)
        H.W.Whitmore (1981)
        and many others
        Hayter, 1997,
        Stutz, p.383


      2. Time-Space Convergence
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Cost of Transportation / Time-Space Convergence D.G.Janelle (1968) Abler (1971)
        Forer (1974)
        Stutz (1998) pp.184ff.
        Johnston (1994, 628-30)
        Donald G.Janelle (1991)


      3. Time-Geographic Location Perspectives
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Time Geography
        Value of time in transportation
        Time budget
        Daily time-space prism
        Mobility Constraints
      4. Capability
      5. Coupling
      6. Authority Just-in-time systems (kanban)
      7. Gary Becker (1965)
        Reuben Gronau (1970+)
        Torsten Hägerstrand (1970)
        F.S.Chapin (1974)
        Carlstein (1978/81)
        A. Giddens (1984, Ch.3)
        Dicken,P.& P.Lloyd (1981), 20-9
        Johnston (1994, 624-7)
        Time Geography Website & Readings
        Resources (Just-in-time)



      8. Periodic Markets
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Periodicity
        Market days
        Traders
        J.H.Stine (1962)
        G.W.Skinner (1964)
        R.H.T. Smith (1979/80)
        J.Nowakowski (1989)
        R.F.Bromley (1980)
        Stutz, pp.329-31
        Johnston (1994, 437)


      9. Location and Aging: Product-, Housing-, and other Cycles
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Product and industry life cycles
        Housing transition (filtering)
        W.R.Thompson (1965/69)
        Vernon (1966)
        E. Penrose (1952)
        and others
        E.von Böventer
        Charles Leven (1976)
        Harry Margulis (1998)
        Hayter, 1997, pp.100-102
        Stutz, pp.381-3
        Johnson, p.201 (filtering)


    8. Transitions: Oligopolistic Behaviors and Managerial Decision Strategies and Processes

      1. Location Conditions and Location Factors; Empirical Location Factor Research
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Conditions
        versus
        Factors
        A.Weber 1909
        H.Kunimatsu (1953)
        S.Kasuga (1958)
        T.E. McMillan (1965)
        Nishioka & Krumme (1973)
        Hayter (1997)
        Hayter, 1997, Ch.4


      2. Uncertain & Turbulent Behavioral & Organizational Environments
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Causal texture of environment
        Relevant uncertainty
      3. Placid radom environment
      4. Placid clustered environment
      5. Disturbed reactive environment
      6. The turbulent field
      7. F.E.Emery & E.L.Trist (1965) Guy Steed (1971)
        G.Krumme (1977)
        Nigel Thrift (1989/95)
        Resource Page


      8. Flexibility & Flexibility Strategies
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Flexibility
        Adaptability
        Alterability
        Convertability
        George Stigler (1939)
        Douglas K. Fleming (1967 & 1978);
        Fleming&Krumme (1968)
        Tibor Scitovsky (1980)
        Krumme, 1981 Hayter, 1997, pp.
        Krumme (in Rees et al.)
        Flexibility Website


      9. Location Decision Processes: Timing in Space: Optimal Procrastination: Locating Now or Locating Later?
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Procrastination Howard Stafford (1969/74) Krumme (1981)


      10. Imitation, Maintaining Status Quo, "Splashing"
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Imperfect competition
        Oligopolistic behaviors in corporate space
        Locational imitation
        Matching
        Exchange of threats
        Locational overlap
        S.Hymer (1970)
        F.T.Knickerbocker (1973)
        Vernon (1985)
        John Rees (1978)
        Risto Laulajainen (1982)
        Hayter (1997, 165-7)


    9. Behavioral Location Approaches:

      1. Satisficing and Bounded Rationality
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Satisficing
        Bounded Rationality
        Intended Rationality
        Procedural Rationality (1976)
        George Katona (1951)
        Herbert A.Simon (1955, 1976)
        J.Wolpert (1964)
        A.Pred (1967, 1969)
        Hayter, 1997 p.80; p.138
        Johnston (1994, 543)


      2. The Behavioral Theory of the Firm
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Behavioral micro-economics
        Organizational Slack
        Organizational learning
        Uncertainty avoidance
        Quasi-resolution of conflict etc.
        R.Cyert & J.March (1963) A.Pred (1967, 1969)
        Contra: F.Machlup (1967)
        Conceptual Outline


      3. "Muddling Through"
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Disjointed Incrementalism; synoptic ideal vs. incremental strategy D. Braybrooke & Ch.E. Lindblom (1963) Goodall, p.132
        Resources (Adaptation)


      4. Optimally Imperfect Decisions or the Inefficiency of Being Efficient: Rules of Thumb / Standard Operating Procedures
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        "the irrational passion for dispassionate rationality" W.J.Baumol & R.E.Quandt (1964) M.A.Goldberg (1975) Hoover (1985 Online)


      5. Ambiguities and Garbage Cans
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Garbage cans; Ambiguous choice situations Cohen, March & Olsen (1972) Feldman & March 1981 Garbage Cans; A Disconnection View of the Organization & Disclosure Issues
        Krumme (1981)


      6. Behavioral Matrix: Access to and Use of Information (Pred)
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Bounded rationality
        Availability of information
        Ability to use information
        A. Pred (1967)
        based on: Simon
        Wolpert (1964)
        Contra: Claus & Claus
        John Adams (1970)
        Hayter (1997, 140-3)


      7. Field-Theoretic Approaches (Environment of Human Behavior)
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Psychological field of forces
        Life space
        Boundary zone/conditions
        Valence (expected utility)
        Place utility
        Behavior settings
        Kurt Lewin (1951) Talcott Parsons (1956/1968)
        Roger Barker (1963/68)
        Herald Mey (1972)
        D.Lowenthal (1961)
        Julian Wolpert (1965)
        Berry (1968)
        M.Eliot Hurst (1969)
        J.D.Porteous (1977)
        Johnston (1994, 166, environmental perception)


      8. Search Behaviors, Information Behaviors
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Scanning, Monitoring
        Internal/external communication
        Unsolicited information
        Strategic information
        F.J.Aguilar (1967)
        W.J.Keegan (1974)
        Saunders & Jones (1990)


    10. . Structural Approaches
      "The focus on individual decision-making distracts attention from the structural features of the economy to which firms react, and what firms actually do with respect to the setting up or closure of plants is best understood in this broader context of Political Economy..."

      "...the new organizational media show signs of a kind of 'social dissassembly" of organizations...
      ...The breakdown of social organization resembles the entropic breakdown of systems in general. They lose their distinctiveness; the borders separating organization from organization, organization from nonorganization, dissolve.... We are witnessing a breakdown of boundaries within and between organizations, bred by omni-interconnectivity and by the speed of the new media... The boundaries of the traditional organization are crumbling.." [
      Benjamin D. Singer (1986)]

      1. Scope Economies, Diversity


      2. Organizational Geography and the Geography of Corporate Enterprise
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Geography of Enterprise Robert McNee (1960) Krumme (1966/1969)
        Peter Townroe (1969)
        Peter Dicken (1971/1990)
        Hayter & Watts (1983)
        Laulajainen & Stafford (1995)
        Contra: Richard Walker (1989)
        Hayter (1997, 161ff.(Ch.7)
        Website (Resources)


      3. Interorganizational Relations, Strategic Alliances and Corporate Networks
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Inter-Organizational Environment
        Organization Set
        Strategic Alliance
        Duncan (1972)
        F.E.Emery & E.L.Trist (1965)
        Fleming & Krumme (1968)
        Charles Hill
        B.Kogut (1988)
        Rowena Ahern (1993)
        Hayter (1997 ch.13)


      4. Contact Systems
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Innovation patterns & contact systems
        Communication networks
        Contact landscape
        Contact-intensive employees
        Torsten Hagerstrand (1952)
        Larry Brown (1968)
        G. Tornqvist (1970, 1973)
        E.Malecki Johnston (1994, 132-5)


      5. Corporate Networks
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Zaibatsu
        Keiretsu
        Interlocking directorates
        M.Aoki (1988) M.Gerlach (1992)
        M.Castells (1996)
        Castells (1996) pp.160ff.


      6. Organizational Spatial Structure
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Headquarters
        R&D Locations
        Office Employment
        Hollow Corporations
        Johnston & Rimmer E.Malecki (R&D) Chapman (1990, Ch.7)
        Stutz, 377-83


      7. Urban-Hierarchical Views of the Organization
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Headquarter Locations in Systems of Cities Hymer (1972)
        Allan Pred (1977)
        Heenan (1978)
        Wheeler
        Hayter, pp.102-3


      8. Evolutionary Approach
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Path dependency
        Technological trajectory
        Boulding (1981)
        Nelson & Winter (1982)
        North, Storper (1997), pp.59ff.
        Nelson (JEL 1995)
        Evolutionary Economics Website


      9. Flexible Specialization/ Accumulation/Production
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Post-Fordism
        Flexible Manufacturing Systems
        Flexible Specialization
        A.Bagnasco (1977)
        T.Scitovsky (1980)
        Berger & Piore (1980)
        Piore & Sabel (1984)
        M.Storper & S.Christopherson (1987)
        M.Gertler (1988)
        Hayter (1997) pp.35-43
        Flexibility Website


      10. Branch Plant Propositions for Host Economies
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Truncation
        Corporate delocalization (Heying)
        Hollow Corporation
        New international division of labor (NIDL)
        Deindustrialization
        Circuit of capital
        Servan-Schreiber (1968);
        Firn (1975);
        Britton & Gilmour (1978)
        F.Froebel (1980)
        Hayter (1982)
        D.Keeble
        B.Harrison & B.Bluestone (1988)
        C.Heying (1997)
        Dicken
        Hayter, pp.375ff.(Ch.15)
        Dicken, Ch.8
        R.Putnam (2000), pp.282-3 Handout
        Johnson (1994)
      11. p.123 (deindustrialization)
      12. p.126 (dependence)
      13. p.419-21 (NIDL)

      14. Plant Closure & Layoffs
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Redundancies
        Downsizing
        "Zapping Labor"
        Cessation- & Selective Closures
        Advance Notification (WARN Act)
        B.Bluestone & B.Harrison (1982) Stafford (1989/90)
        Krumme (1990+)
        H.D.Watts (1986/98)
        Hayter, pp.108-10
        Stutz, 379-80
        Resource Website
        Literature (Layoff Disclosure)


      15. Local & Regional Labor Markets & Processes
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Dual labor markets
        Employment flexibilities
        Human Capital
        Job Search
        Implicit contract theory
        Restructuring
        Segmentation
        Internal labor markets
        Doeringer & Piore (1971)
        Lippman & McCall (1976)
        G.Clark (1983)
        M.Fischer & Nijkamp (1987)
        Jamie Peck (1989-96)
        Andrew Herod (1997)
        Hayter, Ch.12, pp.291ff.
        Website


      16. Spatial Entrapment Hypothesis
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Spatial entrapment
        Work & gender
        Gendered labor market
        S.Hanson & G.Pratt (1988, 1995) S.McLafferty & V.Preston (1991)
        Kim England (1993)
        Hayter (1997), p.303


      17. Economic Geography of Producer Services
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Advanced producer services
        Business services
        Export services
        Financial services
        Information services
        New service economy
        Rural services
        W.Christaller (1933)
        Colin Clark
        D. Bell
        Victor Fuchs (1968)
        Thomas Stanback (1980) (1983)
        Thierry J. Noyelle (1983)
        Peter Daniels (1985+)
        J.N.Marshall (1987)
        J.I.Gershuny (1987)
        Giarini (1987)
        Beyers (1996)
        Lindahl (1999)
        Johnston (1994, 479, 550-2)
        Hayter, p.380
        Website


      18. Postmodern Views of Space and Location
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Jameson (1984)
        Offe (1985)
        Harvey (1989)
        Soja (1989)
        Massey (1991) & many others Johnston (1994, 466-8, 386-7, modernism)
        Barnes (1996) pp.28-31


      19. Milieu, Locality, Place & Local Business Climate
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Locality; Place
        Locale, Milieu
        Local Business Climate
        Dependence on place-situated institutions and relations
        Social capital
        Embeddedness
        Networks of civic engagement (Putnam)
        (Local) Trust
        Thorstein Veblen (1898-1915)
        Guy Steed (1968)
        Yi-Fu Tuan (1977)
        A.Pred (1983)
        A.Giddens (1984)
        M.Granovetter (1985)
        D.Massey (1984)
        Cooke (1989, 1990)
        Cox & Mair (1988, 1991)
        Sayer & Walker (1992)
        Robert Putnam (1993/2000)
        A.Saxenian (1994)
        Hayter, Ch.16
        Johnston (1994, 335-9)
        Barnes, pp.23-31
        Storper, pp.16-18
        Cohen&Fields (1998)
        Cutter (1985)
        Malecki (1986)


    11. . Organizational Growth & Change: Knowledge and Capital Accumulation in Time and Space: Incubators, Organizations, Institutions

      1. Organizational Growth
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Models of Growth: (Starbuck)
      2. Cell-Division Models
      3. Metamorphosis Models
      4. Will-o'-the-Wisp Models
      5. Decision-Process Models
      6. E. Penrose (1959),
        Starbuck (1965)
        Taylor (1975)
        Hayter (1976)
        Hakanson (1979)
        Taylor & Thrift (1982)
        Green (1990)
        Hayter, Ch.11 (*pp.277-9)
        also: pp.162ff + p.196
        Stutz, 374-6


      7. Product Cycles and Location Patterns
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Product life cycles R.Vernon (1966) S.Hirsch (1967)
        Krumme & Hayter (1975)
        A.Markusen (1985)
        Hayter, pp.100-102; 177-8


      8. Geography of Telecommunications and the Information Economy
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Telework
        Tele-Medicine
        Telecommuting
        Smart cities
        M.Hepworth (1989)
        M.Jussawalla (1989)
        A.Kellerman (1993)
        Graham & Marvin (1996) Stutz, 335ff.
        Other Literature
        Web Resources


      9. Learning Organizations
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Senge's Model:
      10. Personal Mastery
      11. Mental Models
      12. Shared Vision
      13. Team Learning
      14. Systems Thinking
        Single/Double-Loop Learning
        Intelligent enterprize
      15. Chris Argyris & Donald Schoen (1978)
        Robert Duncan & Andrew Weiss (1979)
        Edgar Schein (1985)
        Streeck (1989/92)
        Peter Senge (1990)
        Quinn (1992)
        Jerry Patchell (1993)
        Nonaka (1995)
        Hayter, 280-2
        Resources


      16. Learning Societies, Governments, Institutions, Regions & Economies
        "Looking down the kaleidoscope, an emerging theme of crucial importance is the idea of regions (and therefore employees, families, firms, and other organizations and production systems) as learning systems and how learning systems vary from place to place." (Hayter, p.432)
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        H.Siebert (1970)
        Schon (1971)
        D.North (1990)
        Lundvall (1992, 1994)
        M.Storper (1995/97)
        Bretschger (1999)
        Hayter, p.432
        Resources


      17. The New Technological Paradigm
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Technological capabilities
        Information society vs informational society
        G.Dosi
        C.Freeman
        Dean Hansen (1990)
        M.Castells (1996)
        J.B.Quinn (1997)


      18. Incubators, Small Firms & Entrepreneurship
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributor(s)
        Readings
        Entrepreneurship; Incubators
        Venture capital
        Seed-bed hypothesis
        Entrepreneurial birth-rate
        Threshold firms
        Joseph A. Schumpeter M.D.Thomas
        E.Malecki
        G.Steed
        Oakey
        Hayter (1997) Ch.9 (215ff.)
        Malecki


      19. Growth Poles & Growth Centers
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Growth poles
        Key sectors
        Backward linkages
        Joseph Schumpeter
        Francois Perroux (1955)
        A.O.Hirschman (1957)
        Niles Hansen
        J.R.Boudeville (1966)
        M.D.Thomas
        John Parr (1999)
        Johnston (1994, 238-9)
        Healey & Ilberry, 1990, ch.15


      20. Industrial Districts
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Industrial linkage;
        Sticky places
        A.Marshall (1890) A.Scott (1991+)
        M.Storper (1989+)
        A.Saxenian (1981+)
        A.Markusen (1996)
        Hayter, pp.329-47
        Websites:
      21. Hightech Activities
      22. Localization

      23. FDI/DFI
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        FDI (DFI), R.Vernon (since 1966)
        J.Dunning (since 1973)
        N.Thrift & M.Taylor (1982) Hayter, Ch.11, pp.265ff.
        Dicken (Global Shift)
        Stutz, 446-54, 372-4
        FDI Resources


      24. Macro Perspectives: Economic Base & Multipliers
        Concepts
        Original/Early Contributors
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Space-forming (basic) & space-filling (non-basic) activities
        Income & employment multipliers
        Lowry model
        Quality multiplier
        Technology multipliers
        Werner Sombart (1907)
        J.M.Keynes (1936)
        Charles M. Tiebout (1963)
        A.Pred
        M.D.Thomas (1969)
        Quinn et al. (1997) pp.37ff.
        Hayter (1997) pp.329; 441-4
        Johnston (1994, 351, Lowry Model)


      25. Long Waves and Kondratieff Cycles
        Concept(s)
        Original/Early Contributor(s)
        Subsequent Contributors
        Readings
        Long waves, technology, Kondratieff N.D.Kondratieff,
        J. Schumpeter
        Mensch (1979)
        Freeman (1982)
        Casetti
        Hayter, pp.25ff.
        Stutz, 384-6
        Dicken, 147-9
        Long-Wave Website



    12. Location in Alternative Spaces


    Concept(s)
    Original/Early Contributor(s)
    Subsequent Contributors
    Readings


    Location Theories: Reviews and Critiques:


    Clippings:


    Literature:


    Return to Econ & Bus Geog

    Copyright Gunter Krumme 1967, 2000, all rights reserved
    [econgeog@u.washington.edu]