Three-Dimensional City



Supporting Pages:

Johann Georg Kohl (1850)

Alfred Marshall (1885)

"If we could build houses on top of each other as easily as side by side, and if we could expand in any desired direction as easily as in the horizontal, and further, if communication upwards (i.e. on a ladder or a staircase) were as simple as in horizontal directions, and finally if light and fresh air as well as traffic communications could be provided at considerable depths underground as easily as at upper town levels, every town would take on spherical shape and extend its roads in all directions like a cupola." [quoted from Peucker (1968)] "Houses built in flats are often provided with a lift which is run at the expense of the owner of the house, and in such cases, at all events in America, the top floor sometimes lets for a higher rent than any other. If the site is very valuable and the law does not limit the height of his house in the interest of his neighbours, he may build very high: but at last he will reach the margin of building. At last he will find that the extra expenses for foundations and thick walls, and for his lift, together with some resulting depreciation of the lower floors, make him stand to loose more than he gains by adding one more floor." (Footnote 1, p.371 in: Alfred Marshall)

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    • Skyscrapers []

    • New high-rise keeps tenants in a down market Seattle PI, Thursday, April 4, 2002; By MARNI LEFF "Seattle needed new, high-rise growth space," he said. "The product our tenants are moving out of is at a minimum 12 years older, and the buildings themselves are tired; the improvements are tired."

    • Baruch College Opens a Huge 'Vertical Campus' New York Times, August 28, 2001 By KAREN W. ARENSON Probably the biggest single topic of conversation yesterday was the elevators. William Pedersen of Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, the architects for the building, said the main challenge had been how to move as many as 3,000 students between classes at a time.

      Most office buildings are not built for such huge, unceasing traffic flows. In some of Baruch's old buildings, the line for the elevators sometimes flooded out of the buildings and snaked around the block, as students waited 15 or 20 minutes.

      The new building has six roomy elevators side by side -- nicknamed the six-pack -- elevators open on both ends and stop only at every third floor. (Riders are expected to take escalators or use the stairs to get to the floors in between or take the slower, smaller elevators farther away from the classrooms that stop at each floor.) Yesterday, riders rarely had to wait more than a few minutes.


    Brugmann, Bruce and Greggar Slettleand. The Ultimate Highrise. (1972?) (reviewed by Nicholas von Hoffman in Washington Post/Seattle Times Feb.13, 1972, p.D6).

    Darton, Eric. Divided We Stand: Basic Books, 2000; Paperback, 260 pages [ISBN: 0465017274]

    "... The Trade Center serves as a potent symbol of the disastrous consequences of undemocratic planning and development. This book is a history of that skyscraping ambition and the impact it had on NewYork and international life. ..."

    Gottmann, Jean, Why the Skyscraper?" Geographical Review, vol. 56(2), April 1966, pp.190-212. (slightly modified also in: Gottmann & Harper, eds., Metropolis on the Move, Wiley 1967, pp.125ff.)

    Hoch, Irving. "The Three-Dimensional City: Contained Urban Space. in: Perloff, Harvey S., ed., The Quality of the Urban Environment. Resources for the Future. 1968, pp.75-135.

    Holford, William, "The Tall Building in the Town," Journal of the Town Planning Institute, March 1959.

    Hughes, James W. The new geography of services and office buildings / James W. Hughes, K. Tyler Miller, Robert Lang. New Brunswick, N.J. : Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 1992. [HD9981.8.N53 H84 1992]

    Kohl, Johann Georg. Der Verkehr und die Ansiedlung der Menschen in ihrer Abhaengigkeit von der Gestaltung der Erdoberflaeche. Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung 1st ed., 1841, 2nd ed. 1850. 600 pp., 144 figs.

    Krumme, G.,"Differentiation and Interaction in Three-Dimensional Space: Some Conceptual Speculations," Annals (AAG), 59, March 1969, p. (Abstract)

    MARSHALL, Alfred. Principles of Economics. 1890; 8th ed. London: MacMillan & Co. 1920/ reprint 1959, p.371, footnote 1 [330.lM35/SUZ&UGL]

    Peucker, Thomas K., Johann Georg Kohl: A Theoretical Geographer of the 19th Century," in Professional Geographer 20(4), July 1968, pp.247-50.

    Sabbagh, Karl. Skyscraper: The Making of a Building. Penguin Paperback.

    Thomson, Charles, "How High to Rise," The Appraisal Journal, Vol.34, October 1966, pp.585-91.

    Unwin, Raymond, "Higher Building in Relation to Town Planning," Journal of the American Institute of Architects, March 1924, pp.124ff.

    Wright, Colin. "Residential Location in a Three-Dimensional City," Journal of Political Economy. 79 (Nov/Dec 1971), pp.1378-87.

    Further Quotes:

    1. Marshall

      (Book 4, Chapter III, #7, p.139) which land renders to man, in giving him space and light and air in which to live and work, do conform strictly to the law of diminishing return. It is advantageous to apply a constantly increasing capital to land that has any special advantages of situation, natural or acquired. Buildings tower up towards the sky; natural light and ventilation are supplemented by artificial means, and the steam lift reduces the disadvantages of the highest floors; and for this expenditure there is a return of extra convenience, but it is a diminishing return. However great the ground rent may be, a limit is at last reached after which it is better to pay more ground rent for a larger area than to go on piling up storey on storey any further; just as the farmer finds that at last a stage is reached at which more intensive cultivation will not pay its expenses, and it is better to pay more rent for extra land, than to face the diminution in the return which he would get by applying more capital and labour to his old land.(18*) From this it results that the theory of ground rents is substantially the same as that of farm rents.

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