Geography 350 (Fall 1997):
Late Midterm and "Last Rites"

This test has three parts (Time for the in-class portion will be limited to a maximum of 60 minutes)

1. In class: Closed Books [20 minutes minimum, 30 minutes max; 30%. Please hand in before starting Part II]
2. In class: Open Notebook [20 minutes minimum, 30 minutes maximum; 30%]
3. Take-Home: 2 Parts [40%, 20% each]

PART I ("Nuts and Bolts") (30 minutes) [Make sure you explain/define all terms or concepts which you use in your answer which are not part of the accepted terminology of social studies or geography majors who have not taken this class] Select 4 (four) from these 6 (six) questions, 7 1/2 minutes each):
1. Differentiate between cohort- and life-stage (or age) dependent facets or behaviors in local demographic analyses (with examples).
2. In view of the expense of original surveys, regional analysts have welcomed the ability of using the Location Quotient for inferring interaction (trade). Briefly explain (a) how you would use the L.Q. and (b) two or three of the assumptions you would need to make in order to be able to use it.
3. Explain the difference between the "differential" (sometimes also referred to as the local-factor ) effect and the "composition" (sometimes also called: structural or proportionality) effect in Shift & Share Analysis.
4. Briefly explain the relationship between facets attributed to Engel's Law and the size of the "pcl" and thereby of the local income multiplier.
5. Explain the logic behind using the "diameter" of a network for identifying the final "accessibility matrix".
6. Explain what is happening in Input-Output Analysis when we expand the "B Matrix" to a "B' Matrix", i.e. when we take account of the "induced effects" in the calculation of "Leontief coefficients".

PART II (you may use your notebook) (30 minutes)
Select ONE of the following questions for an "in-depth" analysis:

1. You have read Shaffer's ch6. ("Central Place Theory and Market Analysis") and have learned in class the basics of local/regional multiplier analysis. Now it is time to move those two areas closer together by asking the question:

What can Central Place Theory or other "spatial concepts" and geographic insights contribute to our understanding of local economies. More specifically, how can a spatial dimension be incorporated into multiplier analysis and thereby provide spatially more differentiated multipliers and account for geographically more discrete multiplier effects?

2. Write an essay on "Telecommunications and Local Economic Interdependence Multipliers". Why should regional analysts who have relied on multiplier tools in their past work, take note of any (which?) significant changes which may have occurred in the local economy due to the information and telecommunications revolution? In addition to conveying your understanding of local multiplier analysis, your task would be to develop links between multiplier analysis and telecommunications and other information processes drawing, for example, on insights gained from our on-line discussion of telecommunications issues in this class.

3. (Recycled) In class, we have often referred to the concept of "complexity" and how different approaches recognize different types and degrees of real-world complexity. How would you go about reconciling the divergent needs of the local economic analyst:

(a) To differentiate components of the local economy and recognize interdependence between diverse components, on the one hand, and

(b) To aggregate or simplify or see "common threads" and use simple, relatively aggregate "technical coefficients" or "regional coefficients" or "multipliers", on the other.

In other words, develop some criteria or guidelines for a compromise, i.e. for the right level of aggregation or differentiation used in the analysis of small regions. Do not hesitate to use interdependence tools of your choice as part of examples for the general arguments you are making. [Do not select this question, if you have already answered the earlier version and feel that you cannot add any substantially new ideas]

4. Instead of "putting space into local multiplier analysis" (as question #1 is trying to do) let's think about the role of time. Multiplier effects are taking place in real time(s), just as they are happening in real space. What is gained by distinguishing between "short-run" and "long-run" multipliers and multiplier effects? Does the paper by Helfgott ("On the Demise of the Long Run") shed any light on this particular question?

PART III: Take-Home. (40%, 20% each section) [This part of the midterm is optional in the sense that you may already have accomplished it (or were planning to do so].

1. Finish all outstanding exercises, including putting the "final touches" on them (examples: making sure all your calculations are correct or: reconsidering your answer to question 2 of the multiplier exercise;). The interpretations of your results are as important as the actual calculations. Such interpretations should generally include the identification of any crucial assumptions you are making (or you were implicitly or explicitly asked to make) and the general effects such assumptions have on the results). In the case of shift/share analysis, the interpretation should also refer to the important (!) distinction between differential and compositional effects. And do not forget: You may use literature for these assignments!

2. Write an introduction (300 words minimum) to your "Resource Page". Consider to include the following suggestions:

1. Account for some of the substantive relationships between your specialization and Geography 350. You also may want to comment on your success or failure to find literature or Internet sources which help you (or would have helped you) to establish such links explicitly.
2. A brief account of how you went about creating your Resource Page, including insights you may have gained about the importance of resources and search procedures or how to evaluate the quality of resources, and any novel resource tool you employed which you want to share with others.
3. A report on your collaboration with others in the class in the process of establishing this Page
4. Quo vadis? Where would you go from here to create a more finished product (such as a senior project)?