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The Informational Space Economy


Supporting & Related Sites:

  • Early Warning Systems

  • Learning Organizations

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  • Glossary: Organization & Information

  • Geography of the Information Economy (Geog. 550)

  • Telecommunications Resources

  • Information & Organization (Resources for Geog.550)

  • Networks and Organizational Intranets (Resources)

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  • Basic Concepts: Data, Information, Knowledge, Technology, High-Tech, Invention, Innovation, Patents, Disclosure, Embodied Information.

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    2000 [

    1. The Information Economy (Macro), Information- & Knowledge Occupations, Jobs, Employment, Activities and Sectors & Employment

    2. Information Flows in Space

    3. Information and Spatial Decision-Making

    4. Empirical Information for Geographic Research

    Syllabi Information Networks Economics

    References: Business Informatics (mainly German Lit)

    Economics of Information Products

    In this appendix, we explore the economics of information products and services, applying the theories of monopoly and quasi-public goods."

    The Economics of Information - Web Sources [Benjamin Bates, UT, Knoxville]

    National Geographic. Vol.188(4), Oct. 1995. "Information Revolution".

    The Knowledge Economy: The Nature of Information in the 21st Century 1993-94 Annual Review of the Institute for Information Studies, a joint program of Nortel and The Aspen Institute. (6 papers, 1993/1994)

    The Economics of Information - Web Sources

    Aguilar, Francis Joseph. Scanning the Business Environment. N.Y.: Macmillan, 1967.

    Findings summarized in Ebert & Mitchell, Organizational Decision Processes, 1975, p.96

    Aoki, M., Information, Incentives and Bargaining in the Japanese Economy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988.

    Bakis, Henry. Corporate Networks, International Communications and Interdependence: Perspectives from Geography and Information Systems. Pinter/St.Martin's 1993.

    Beal, George M. et al., eds., Knowledge Generation, Exchange, and Utilization. Westview 1986. [P90 K57/Suz]; including:

    Bikhchandani, S., Hirshleifer, D., and I. Welch, "Learning from the Behavior of Others: Conformity, Fads, and Informational Cascades," Journ of Economic Perspectives, Summer 1998, 12(3), 151-70.

    Branscomb, Lewis M. and James Keller (eds.) Intelligent Tranportation and the National Information Infrastructure. MIT Press, 1996 ISBN 0-262-52215-2 320 pp. $25.00 (paper)

    "This collection explores the opportunities for and possible implications of coordination between two of the major pieces of emerging infrastructure in the United States: Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and the National Information Infrastructure (NII)."

    Brown, John Seely and Paul Duguid The Social Life of Information (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2000) [first three chapters online]

    Arguing elegantly for the important role that human sociability plays in the world of bits, this book, ... gives us an optimistic look beyond the simplicities of information and individuals.... show(s) how a better understanding of the contribution that communities, organizations, and institutions make to learning, knowledge, and judgement can lead to the richest possible use of technology in our work and everyday lives.

    Brunn, S. and T.Leinbach, eds., Collapsing Space and Time (Communications and Information), 1991 [HE7631.B785]

    Butler, Meredith and Bruce Kingma, eds., The Economics of Information in the Networked Environment. (Table of Contents); The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) published the proceedings in June 1996.

    ARL, in partnership with the SUNY University Center Libraries, the Council on Library Resources, the Coalition for Networked Information, and the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges sponsored a conference entitled "Challenging Marketplace Solutions to Problems in the Economics of Information" in Washington, DC, September 18-19, 1995. The conference brought together academic officers, chief information officers and other administrators, economists, librarians, and computing professionals to examine issues related to the development of the knowledge infrastructure and their economic impact on higher education.

    Capello, R. and A. Gillespie, "Transport, Communications and Spatial Organization: Future Trends and Conceptual Frameworks," in: Giannopoulos and Gillespie, eds., Transport and Communications Innovation in Europe. 1993, Ch.3.

    Castells, Manuel. The Informational City: Information Technology, Economic Restructuring, and the Urban-Regional Process. Basil Blackwell 1989 [HC79.I55.C37]

    Castells, Manuel. The Rise of the Network Society. (The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, Vol.I). Blackwell Paperback 1996.

    Review by A.Giddens

    Cooke, Philip et al. Towards Global Localization: The Computing and Telecommunications Industries in Britain and France. University College London Press 1992 [HF1414.T68/Suz]

    Daniels, P.W. "Internationalization, Telecommunications and Metropolitan Development: The Role of Producer Services," in: S.Brunn and T. Leinbach, eds., Collapsing Space and Time: Geographic Aspects of Communication and Information. 1991, pp.149ff.

    Davis, Joel. Mapping the Mind: The Secrets of the Human Brain & How it Works. Birch Lane, 1997 [$24.95/ Bellingham author]

    Dosi, Giovanni. "The Contribution of Economic Theory to the Understanding of a Knowledge-Based Economy," in: OECD. Employment Growth in the Knowledge-based Economy. Paris 1996. [HC79.E47.E54.1996/Suz]

    Dutton, W.H. et al., eds, Wired Cities: Shaping the Future of Communications. Boston: G.K.Hall 1987 [TK5102.5.W57/OUGL]


    Feldman, Martha and James G. March, "Information in Organizations as Signals and Symbol", ASQ, vol.26, June 1981, pp.171-86.

    Feldman, Mayann P. The Geography of Innovation. Kluwer 1994 [T173.8. F44]

    Fuellhart-K., Localization and the use of information sources: The case of the carpet industry. European-Urban-and-Regional-Studies. 1999; 6(1): 39-58 [Local holdings could not be determined - Consult UW catalogs at]

    Business scholars have long emphasized the need for a continuous flow of strategic, tactical and operational information in order for decisionmakers to make informed organizational choices. However, much of the practical and theoretical work on 'organizational learning' and 'environmental scanning' has been aspatial and focused on the large corporation. [GeoBase]

    Gerbner, G. Communications Technology and Social Policy. 1973 [HM258.C589]

    Giannopoulos & Gillespie, eds., Transport and Communications Innovation in Europe. 1993 [HE242.T69]

    Giaoutzi, Maria and Peter Nijkamp, eds., Informatics and Regional Development. Aldershot: Avebury, 1988. [HT391 I44]

    Graef, Peter. "Zur Induktion neuer Standortqualitaeten durch IuK-Techniken," (new location qualities through information & communication technologies), in: Mitteilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft in Muenchen, 1993, pp.39ff. [G13.G382, v.78]

    Graham, Stephen and Simon Marvin, Telecommunications and the City: Electronic Spaces, Urban Places. London: Routledge, 1996 [HE7631.G73]

    Grimshaw, David J., Bringing Geographical Information Systems into Business. Longman Paperback, 1994 [HF5548.2.G7336]

    Jean-Michel Guldmann, [Department of City and Regional Planning, The Ohio State University] Competing destinations and intervening opportunities interaction models of inter-city telecommunication flows, Regional Science Vienna Congress, 1998. [Abstract]

    Harkness, Richard. Telecommunications Substitutes for Travel. 1973. [HT166.H37]

    Healey, Michael J., Economic Activity and Land Use: The Changing Information Base for Local and Regional Studies. Longman 1991 [HD596.E26]

    Hepworth, Mark E. Geography of the Information Economy. London: Belhaven (Pinter), 1989. [HD9999.I492.H46]

    Hepworth, Mark E., Information Technology as Spatial Systems, Progress in Human Geography 11(2), June 1987, pp.157-80.

    Hernon, Peter, et al., eds., Federal Information Policies in the 1990s: Views and Perspectives. Ablex Publ.Co. 1996 {incl. chapter on GIS} [JK 468.S4.F43]

    Hirshleifer, Jack and John G. Riley, The Analytics of Uncertainty and Information. Cambridge University Press, 1992.

    Hodge, David and Heli Koski, Information and Communication Technologies and Transportation: European-US Collaborative and Comparative Research Possibilities (1997)

    Huck, Steffen (Humboldt University, Berlin) and Joerg Oechssler (Humboldt University) Contact: Informational Cascades with Continuous Action Spaces, 1997.

    Huitt, William G., Success in the Information Age: A Paradigm Shift [last revised: July 1997]

    Jussawalla, Meheroo et al., eds., Information Technology and Global Interdependence. Greenwood Press 1989. [HD9999.I492.I54]

    Kahin, Brian and James H. Keller (eds.) Coordinating the Internet. MIT Press, July 1997 ISBN 0-262-61136-8 500 pp. $25.00 (paper)

    The essays ... suggest possible models for governing the Internet. The topics addressed range from settlements and statistics collection to the sprawling problem of domain names..."

    Kahin, Brian and Charles Nesson (eds.) Borders in Cyberspace: Information Policy and the Global Information Infrastructure. MIT Press, 1996 ISBN 0-262-61126-0 300 pp. $25.00 (paper)

    "Borders in Cyberspace investigates issues arising from national differences in law, public policy, and social and cultural values as these differences are reformulated in the emerging global information infrastructure."

    Kahin, Brian, ed., BUILDING INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE; McGraw-Hill, 1991

    Kapur, Puneet. Internet Competitive Advantage and the Global Economy [Infotech Services: Internet Training and Consulting, USA]

    "The growth of the Internet as a powerful economic/business paradigm will be among the most important socioeconomic developments of the late 20th century. In many ways the Internet shows the same trends in growth as did the American railroad around the 1830s...." [Lengthy Abstract]

    Keegan, W.J., Multinational Scanning: A Study of the Information Sources Utilized by Headquarters Executives in Multinational Companies, Administrative Science Quarterly, 9 (1974), 411-21.

    Kellerman, Aharon. Telecommunications and Geography. 1993

    Kennan, John and Robert Wilson, "Bargaining with Private Information," Journ of Econ.Lit., 31(1), March 1993, 45-104.

    Kling, Rob, Learning about Information Technologies and Social Change: The Contribution of Social Informatics. Information Society, Volume 16, Number 3, 2000 [Abstract] [Full Text]

    Kugelmass, Joel. Telecommuting: A Manager's Guide to Flexible Work Arrangements. Lexington Books 1995. [HD2333 K84/BusLib]

    Lamarche, Rodolphe H., Capitalizing on the Information Economy: A New Approach in Regional Development. Moncton. 1990 [HE7814.L36]

    Lamberton, D.M., ed. (1997). The New Research Frontiers of Communication Policy. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

    Lamberton, D.M., ed. (1996). The Economics of Communication and Information. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

    Lamberton, D.M., ed. (1995). Beyond Competition: The Future of Telecommunications. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

    Lamberton, D.M. ed (1971). The Economics of Information and Knowledge. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books.

    Levine, David K. and Steven A. Lippman. The Economics of Information. 2 Vols. Edward Elgar Publ.Co. 1995.

    Li, Feng (Napier Univ., UK) The Geography of Business Information [Hardcover: US$75.00] Belhaven/ Wiley 1995 [ 0-471-94939-6 ]. Series Title: Belhaven Studies in the Information Economy: Urban and Regional Development [Suzzallo General Stacks HF5548.2 .L488 1995]

    Machlup, Fritz. Knowledge: Its Creation, Distribution, and Economic Significance: The Economics of Information and Human Capital. Princeton University Press, 1984. [AZ505.M3.1980/Suz]

    1. Volume I: Knowledge and Knowledge Production
    2. Vol.II: The Branches of Learning.
    3. Vol. III: The Economic of Information and Human Capital
    4. Vol. IV: Research and New Knowledge
    5. Vol. V: Media of Communication
    6. Vol. VI: Information Services and Information Machines
    7. Vol. VII: Knowledge Production: Its Size and Growth
    8. Vol. VIII: Knowledge Occupations and the Knowledgeable Society.
    Fritz Machlup and Una Mansfield, The Study of information : interdisciplinary messages. New York : Wiley, c1983. Suzzallo General Stacks: Z665 .S826 1983.

    Machlup, F. (1962). The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

    Machlup, F.; Mansfield, U. eds. (1983). The Study of Information: Interdisciplinary Messages. New York: Wiley.

    McKnight, Lee W. and Joseph P. Bailey (eds.) Internet Economics. MIT Press, May 1997 ISBN 0-262-13336-9 350 pp. $35.00 (cloth)

    "....the papers assembled here constitute some of the seminal contributions to a new economic sub-field, by the scholars who were among the first to notice and investigate these new questions."

    MASSER, Ian & Harlan J. ONSRUD, eds., DIFFUSION AND USE OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES. Dordrecht ; Boston : Kluwer Academic published in cooperation with NATO Scientific Affairs Division, 1993. vii, 349 p. : ill., maps. [G70.2 .D52 1993].

    GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION HANDLING : RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS / EDITED BY PAUL M. MATHER. Chichester [England] ; New York : Wiley & Sons, c1993. x, 343 p.,: ill., maps. [G70.2 .M3d 1993]

    Meadows, A.J., ed., Knowledge and Communication: Essays on the Information Chain. London: Library Assoc.Publ. 1991. [Z699.K56]

    Michelson, Ronald L and James O. Wheeler. "The Flow of Information in a Global Economy: The Role of the American Urban System in 1990," Annals (AAG), 84(1), March 1994, pp.87-107.

    Information circulation and availability have always been fundamental to the development of cities. With the rise of the informational city, and the global economy, the creation and exchange of highly specialized information has become vital for a metropolitan center's success. ...examines the contemporary production and exchange of higher-order information that occurs among and between American cities and reveals how ongoing globalization has affected the position of these cities in the system of information exchange.

    Nijkamp & Salomon, "Telecommunication and the Tyranny of Space," in: in: Orishimo et al., eds., 1988, pp.91-106.

    Nijkamp, Peter and Piet Rietveld, eds., Information Systems for Integrated Regional Planning. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1984.

    Nonaka, Ikujiro and Hirotaka Takeuchi, The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. [Business Admin General Stacks HD30.3 .N66 1995 DUE 06-13-97]

    "Published in 1995, the book continues to be the best-selling title on the Oxford University Press business list. The book has been widely praised for fresh thinking and deep insight illuminating the complex processes underlying the creation, capture, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge in the workplace. Ikujiro Nonaka, who received both his MBA and his Ph.D. in business from UC Berkeley, has been elected by the Haas School faculty to be the first to hold the new Xerox Distinguished Professorship as a visiting professor. A well-known professor of management at Hitotsubashi University, Nonaka has long been one of Japan's foremost authorities on developing and using the intellectual capital of workers to create and expand business knowledge." (Berkeley announcement)

    OECD The Information Economy; OECD Workshops on the Economics of the Information Society

    Aimed at developing economic data, research and analysis as the precursor for policy discussions, these six workshops concentrated on providing leading-edge research on the economics of the "information society", stressed quantitative and empirical aspects, and sought to identify and refine the analytical and statistical tools. All considered electronic commerce, notably the third, fifth and sixth of the series.

    Orishimo, Isao; Geoffrey J.D. Hewings and Peter Nijkamp, eds., Information Technology: Social and Spatial Perspectives. Springer 1988. [HC79.I55.I58]

    Polanyi, Michael. Personal Knowledge. 2nd.ed., Routledge, 1962 (1st ed. 1958).

    Porat, Marc U., Defining an information sector in the U.S. economy. Stanford, Calif. : Program in Information Technology and Telecommunications, Center for Interdisciplinary Research, Stanford University, 1975. "Report no. 15.". Includes bibliographical references. Learning-and-scholarship -- United-States. Occupations -- Classification. United-States --Economic-conditions. Suzzallo General Stacks AZ505 .P67 1975

    Radner, Roy, Problems in the Theory of Markets under Uncertainty The American Economic Review, Vol. 60, No. 2, Papers and Proceedings of the Eighty-second Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association. (May, 1970), pp. 454-460. [Paper (JSTOR)]

    Robins, Understanding Information: Business, Technology and Geography. 1992 [HC260.I55.U53]

    Andreas Rösch, Wolf-Dieter Grossmann, Regional sustainable development and the information society in Europe, Regional Science, Vienna Congress 1998.

    Rogers, Everett M., A History of Communication Study: A Biographical Approach. Free Press 1994 [P90 R613/Suz]

    Rubin, Michael Rogers and Mary Taylor Huber, The Knowledge Industry in the United states 1960-1980. Princeton University Press 1986. [AZ505.R83/Suz]

    Saunders, Carol and J.W.Jones, Temporal Sequences in Information Acquisition for Decision Making: A Focus on Source and Medium, in: Academy of Management Review 15(1), 1990, 29-46.

    Shapiro, Carl ; Hal R. Varian, Versioning: The Smart Way to Sell Information [Harvard Business Review, Nov/Dec. 1998]

    Shapiro, Carl ; Hal R. Varian, Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 1999
    [Reviewed by Bert Sadowski Delft University of Technology Book Review, Volume 24, Number 5 (June 2000)]

    Smith, Anthony. Books to Bytes: Knowledge and Information in the Postmodern Era. British Film Institute 1993. [Ch.3, pp.125ff.: "The Computer and the Library] [P90.S56]

    Stefik, Mark, (ed.) Internet Dreams: Archetypes, Myths, and Metaphors. MIT Press, May 1997 ISBN 0-262-69202-3 440 pp., 24 illus. $15.00 (paper)

    "The "information superhighway" is a metaphor oft used to describe the internet, used so often that Stefik fears we're in danger of subjecting the evolution of the net to the limiting implications of this metaphor."

    Stiglitz, J. Information and Economic Analysis: A Perspective," Economic Journal Suppl. to vol.95, pp.21-41,

    Stonier, Tom. The Wealth of Information: A Profile of the Post-Industrial Economy. 1983. [HC255.S84]

    Suda, Masaya. Office and Plant Location with Transport Costs of Information. Journal of Regional Science, 1997, 37(1), p. 23.

    ... under the framework of profit maximization office and plant locations are analyzed, taking into account the existing cost of transporting information between the market and the office, and between the office and the plant. The conclusion is that if the office and the plant are located separately, the value of the unit transmission cost of information on production significantly decreases.

    Tornqvist, Gunnar E., Contact Systems and Travel Facilities: Contact Models of Sweden and Regional Development Alternatives in the Future, in: Pred & Tornqvist, Systems of Cities and Information Flows: Two Essays, Lund: Lund Studies in Geography, Series B, No,38, 1973.

    Tornqvist, Gunnar E., Contact Systems and Regional Development, Lund Studies in Geography, Series B, No. 35, 1970

    Treverton, Gregory F. and Lee Mizell, The Future of the Information Revolution in Latin America: Proceedings of an International Conference. Rand / National Intelligence Council, 2001 [HM851.T73.2001/Suz]

    Commercial Services:

    Interesting Syllabi:

    The Geography of the Information Society (Buffalo, GEO 666)

    The Economics of Information - Web Sources

    Interesting Conferences:

    Competing in the Information Society June 24, 25, 26 1998, Genoa

    Date: Fri, 01 Mar 1996 13:43:54 -0800
    From: Helen Couclelis 
    Subject: Spatial Technologies, Geographic Information, and the City: a Research Conference
    SECOND ANNOUNCEMENT - Please note new application information. Deadline for
    submissions is March 31, 1996.
    National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis
    Spatial Technologies, Geographic Information, and the City
    A Research Conference
    Baltimore, September 9-11, 1996
    Spatial technologies, that is, the complex of new transportation,
    communication, and information technologies, are rapidly  changing spatial
    relations in today's cities.  The appearance of  "Edge Cities" on the
    periphery of  metropolitan areas, and the experiments with Intelligent
    Transportation Systems, have already captured a lot of public attention. But
    spatial technologies also affect accessibility conditions for different
    activities and population groups, as well as the urban structure itself, in
    ways that are not as visible and often very difficult to gauge.  The
    conference will explore the ways in which these technologies are both
    transforming our cities and, in the case of information technologies in
    particular, also expanding our ability to plan for these changes.  A
    specific focus will be on the role of geographic information technologies in
    enabling us to deal with changing conditions of accessibility,  distance,
    and spatial interaction in urban environments.  This is a critical but as
    yet little researched area.  We will review the current state of knowledge
    on these issues, chart potential research directions, and focus on the ways
    in which planners and policy-makers might respond to these new developments.
    We see geographic information science and technology playing a significant
    role in bringing together those working in this complex area, in particular,
    experts in urban geography and planning, urban transportation and
    telecommunications, urban sociology and service provision, and GIS.  To this
    end, the conference will address the following broad questions: 
    ˇ  What changes in accessibility are brought about by spatial technologies
    affecting spatial interactions in cities?
    ˇ  How do these changes affect different geographically or socially defined
    urban population groups?
    ˇ How can geographic information science and technology be used to help
    identify, measure, model, and plan for the impacts of changing spatial
    technology on the city?
    Within these broad themes, the following more specific questions may be
    addressed :
    Relating to changing conditions of urban accessibility and their impacts:
     - What empirical evidence is available to support the widely conjectured
    changes in urban accessibility brought about by the increasingly widespread
    use of communication and information technologies?
    - How are urban land use and structure, at different geographic scales,
    responding to the changes in access brought about by modern spatial
    - How can land use and transportation models be adapted to reflect the
    substitutive, complementary, or synergistic effects of new spatial technologies?
    - What empirical work is available documenting how access (and lack of
    access) to information and opportunities is practically experienced by
    traditionally disadvantaged 
    urban populations (inner city residents, the aged, working mothers, etc.)?
    - How will advanced spatial technologies, especially electronic information
    networks, change conditions of access to employment opportunities for
    geographically localized, disadvantaged urban populations?
    - In the context of urban service delivery, to what extent will the new
    spatial technologies be substitutive, complementary, or synergistic relative
    to one another and to the more traditional ways of bringing information and
    services to urban populations?
    - What are the trends in the electronic delivery and use of retail, library,
    and other services, and what are the positive (e.g., improved access) and
    negative (e.g., further competitive disadvantages, job losses) impacts on
    urban populations?
    Relating to the role of geographic information science and technology:
    - What new conceptual or formal models need to be developed to capture
    changing notions of distance and access, and how can these be most usefully
    implemented in GIS?
    - What kinds of data will be needed to implement the necessary concepts and
    models, how will these be collected, and how will they be accessed and
    - How can GIS-based systems handling aspects of the urban access issue be
    fruitfully interfaced with other relevant technologies (especially the
    National Information Infrastructure), as well as with the informal,
    socially-based information networks?
    - What current uses of GIS in urban planning and transportation, policy
    making, and management are relevant to the access issue?  Which are the
    institutional structures, agencies and stages within the urban policy
    process where GIS can make the most positive contribution to the problem of
    - Who will be the main users and managers of GIS-based systems intended to
    contribute to the improvement of urban access conditions for disadvantaged
    populations?  What are the user needs, professional and managerial as well
    as among the public at large, with respect to such technologies?
    The Conference will be sponsored by the National Center for Geographic
    Information and Analysis (NCGIA).  We are planning for a meeting of  35-40
    scholars who will contribute research notes to be circulated to all
    participants prior to the meeting.  The conference itself will include both
    plenary and small-group discussion sessions, and hands-on workshops.  Its
    goal is two-fold: (a) to prepare for the formulation of  a research agenda
    identifying major themes and funding opportunities for concerted research
    efforts, and (b), to plan for an edited book summarizing the state of
    knowledge and outlining the major issues in the general subject area of the
    Research notes of about 2,000 words, presenting empirical or theoretical
    work or reviewing the state of knowledge in the areas of interest to the
    conference, should be sent to the following address by March 31, 1996, in
    both hard-copy and electronic (e-mail) formats.  Notification of acceptance
    will be issued on May 15.  An important selection criterion will be the
    degree to which submissions integrate the three thematic dimensions of urban
    accessibility, impact on populations, and geographic information. Research
    notes should be accompanied by a brief resume and statement of the
    applicant's research interests beyond those directly reflected in the note.
    A number of fellowships of up to $500 ($750 for West Coast and overseas
    applicants) will be available from the National Center for Geographic
    Information and Analysis towards accommodation and reasonable travel costs.
    Applications for funding must be included with the research note
    submissions, along with a mention of any other sources from which additional
    funding may be obtained.  Please quote lowest available economy fare.
    Overseas fellowship recipients must use US air carriers.    
    For further information please contact
    Dr. Helen Couclelis
    NCGIA and Department of Geography,
    University of California,
    Santa Barbara, CA 93106
    Phone: (805) 893 2196
    Fax:    (805) 893 8617
    email:	cook@
    Conference steering committee:
    Ron Abler (AAG), Mike Batty (University College, London), Helen Couclelis
    (NCGIA/University of California, Santa Barbara), Ken Dueker (Portland State
    University), Susan Hanson (Clark University),  Kingsley Haynes (George Mason

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