Energy Resources

Educational Internet & Literature Resources

OPEC countries include Venezuela, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, and Indonesia.

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Washington / Pacific Northwest


  • Lawmakers from state want probe of Enron price rigging: They demand criminal investigation, voiding of long-term contracts SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER, Thursday, May 9, 2002 By CHARLES POPE "... One practice, called "Ricochet," allowed Enron to send power out of California and then resell it back into the state to avoid price caps that applied to transactions solely within California ..."

  • BPA gets break in Senate energy bill: Conservation and production are stressed; dispute looms with House over Alaska refuge SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER, Friday, April 26, 2002; By CHARLES POPE. WASHINGTON -- Wheeling and dealing until the end, the Senate yesterday passed a broad energy bill filled with tax breaks and other incentives for producing and conserving oil and gas while keeping a vast slice of Alaska wilderness off limits to exploration.

  • Dark days at City Light: Seattle utility was ill-prepared for a chaotic market; Seattle Times, March 10, 2002. By Lynda V. Mapes, Alwyn Scott and Jim Brunner Seattle Times staff reporters and electricity rates nearly 60 percent higher because their utility was not prepared for last year's energy crisis and slow to respond once it occurred. Seattle City Light customers are stuck with a mountain of new debt.
    Related stories:
    The story behind City Light's 'perfect storm' of 2001
    A power primer
    What happened in Snohomish County

  • Judge criticizes NW utilities as she opposes their bid for refunds Seattle PI, Monday, October 22, 2001, By JANE HADLEY The sky-high electricity rates Northwest consumers are paying can be blamed on bad weather, but they're also the result of questionable decisions by Seattle City Light and Tacoma Power, a federal administrative judge has concluded.

  • The energy crisis: ground zero Seattle Times, June 03, 2001 By Lynda V. Mapes This is ground zero in the West Coast energy crunch. Washington's concerns over salmon and increased electric rates - still among the cheapest in the country - seem pale by comparison to people worried about sewage backing up into streets when pumps won't run.
  • High income, high power Seattle Times, March 18, 2001, The McCaw home headed a list of top residential energy users provided by Seattle City Light under the state's public-records act.

    Businesses gulp down the juice Seattle Times, March 18, 2001, by Ross Anderson

    Predictably, the leading commercial users are the skyscrapers that line Fifth Avenue. These two clusters of enterprise consume a major proportion of Seattle's power supply. City Light says 15 percent of its load goes to industry, 35 percent to commercial businesses and 50 percent to residential users.
    These are Seattle City Light's top 10 industrial power users (1999 usage):
    1. Birmingham Steel - 328,162 megawatt hours*
    2. Saint Gobain Containers (formerly Ball Foster Glass) - 143,787 mwh
    3. Boeing Puget Sound Aircraft and Missiles - 99,177 mwh
    4. Ash Grove Cement - 85,846 mwh
    5. La Farge Corporation (cement) - 45,595 mwh
    6. Boeing Commercial - 43,354 mwh
    7. Fisher Flouring Mills - 27,199 mwh
    8. Todd Pacific Shipyards - 25,879 mwh
    9. James Hardie Gypsum - 23,344 mwh
    10. Associated Grocers - 20,911 mwh

    Seattle City Light's top 10 commercial power users (1999 usage):
    1. Bank of America Tower (formerly Columbia Center), Fifth Avenue and Cherry Street - 30,965 megawatt hours*
    2. US Bank Center Building (City Centre), Fifth Avenue and Pike Street - 27,506 mwh
    3. Key Tower, Fifth Avenue and Cherry Street - 24,029 mwh
    4. Boeing Commercial, 1135 S. Webster St. - 23,430 mwh
    5. Two Union Square, Sixth Avenue and Union Street - 22,451 mwh
    6. Starbucks Center, First Avenue South and Utah Avenue South - 21,631 mwh
    7. Sixth & Virginia, Sixth Avenue and Virginia Street - 20,842 mwh
    8. Wells Fargo Center (formerly First Interstate Center), Third Avenue and Madison Street - 20,751 mwh
    9. U S West Communications, Sixth Avenue and Pine Street - 19,618 mwh
    10. Rainier Tower, Fifth Avenue and Union Street - 18,766 mwh

    *One megawatt hour equals 1,000 kilowatt hours

  • Conservation's regeneration Seattle Times, January 21, 2001; By Lynda V. Mapes The Northwest Power Planning Council, a watchdog organization established after the nuclear-power-plant fiasco, estimates about 2,400 megawatts are available regionwide through conservation - enough to power two Seattles.
  • Governors focus on power cost Seattle Times, December 21, 2000 By Seattle Times and Wire Reports
    DENVER - U.S. Energy Secretary Bill Richardson yesterday extended an order requiring Western electricity producers to supply surplus power to California to alleviate its energy crisis. He also asked Western governors to support a regionwide cap on wholesale electricity prices and to work together to solve problems that have created power shortages and skyrocketing rates throughout the West. Some Puget Sound utilities will raise rates next month as much as 50 percent.
  • Power situation topsy-turvy, and here's why Seattle Times, December 17, 2000 By Andrea Otanez Seattle Times assistant metro editor
    Cold, dry weather last weekend brought warnings of power shortages in the Northwest. This week the region is under federal orders to sell surplus wattage to California.
  • Germany's new no-nuke policy ignites row with France [Friday January 15, 1999; 7:15 PM, AFP]
  • Shifting energy politics dim once-mighty BPA ; Seattle Times, Sunday, Jan. 4, 1998 by Ross Anderson In his upcoming budget proposal, President Clinton is expected to formally propose selling the BPA - whether it be to a private buyer or a consortium of Northwest governments. That idea has been floated before, but the prospect becomes more serious as Congress confronts tax subsidies and other issues that arise from government efforts to dereg- ulate energy.
  • Do endangered salmon equal endangered dams? Seattle Times, Sunday, April 20, 1997 by Jim Simon Seattle Times staff reporter


Bibliography on Risk Assessment (and GIS Tools) (The University of East Anglia)

BOYLE, GODFREY, ed., Renewable Energy. Oxford University Press, 1996,

ADVANCES IN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT : TRIBUTES TO W.R. DERRICK SEWELL / EDITED BY HAROLD D. FOSTER. London : Belhaven Press ; Boca Raton, Fla. : Distributed in North America by CRC Press, 1993. viii, 366 p. : ill., maps. [HC79.E5 A33 1993].

Ernst R. Berndt and David O. Wood, "Technology, Prices, and the Derived Demand for Energy," Review of Economics and Statistics 57, 3 (August 1975), 259-268.

Butts, Kent Hughes. The Strategic Importance of Water (1997)

Frank Giarratani and Charles F. Socher, "The Pattern of Industrial Location and Rising Energy Prices," Atlantic Economic Journal 5, 1 (March 1977), 48-55.


Various attempts have been made to identify similarities in the long term spatial evolution of industries. Systematic changes in both the technology of production and in the dynamics of market development have been incorporated in life cycle models. Others have criticised the determinism of such models, emphasizing their tendency to over-generalize from limited empirical evidence and to neglect the impact of contigent conditions in shaping observed patterns of development.

Lamb, Russell L. and Wilkerson, Chad R. Can U.S. Oil Production Survive the 20th Century? Economic Review (Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City), 1999, First Quarter.

The plunge in world oil prices has brought further difficulties to U.S. oil production, which has been declining in recent years. At the current low prices, most domestic oil wells are not profitable. This calls into question the long -run viability of oil production in the United States.

William H. Miernyk, Frank Giarratani, and Charles Socher, Regional Impacts of Rising Energy Prices (Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger, 1978), pp. 57-76.

Pinder, David and Bridget Simmonds, "Oil Transport: Pipelines, Ports and the New Political Climate," in: Transport and Economic Development in the New Central and Eastern Europe. Hall, D., ed., Belhaven, 1993 [HE242.9 T73]

Noboru Sakashita, "The Location Theory of Firm Revisited: Impacts of Rising Energy Prices," Regional Science and Urban Economics, 10, 3 (August 1980), 423-428.

Washington State Department of Community, Trade, and Economic Development. "The Next Generation of Energy: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Industries in Washington State", 1998.

Yergin, Daniel. The prize : the epic quest for oil, money, and power / New York : Simon and Schuster, 1991. Business Admin General Stacks [HD9560.6 .Y47 1991]


"The War for America' Natural Resources" William R. Nester, 1997.

"Natural Resource Economics" Charles W. Howe. 1979

    • Chapters 1-8: Background Information on Scarcity and Markets
    • Chapter 9: The Management of Energy Resources

"Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment" Pearce and Turner. 1990

    • Part I: Economy and Environment (Chapters 1-3)
    • Part II: The Economics of Pollution (Chapters 4-13)
    • Part IV: The Economics of Natural Resources (Chapters 16-19)

"Natural Resources" Stroup and Baden. 1983

    • Chapter 5: Energy Scarcities and Political Oppurtunities

"A Renewable Resource Economy" Robert D. Hamrin. 1983

"The World Economy: Resources, Location, Trade, and Development" Souza and Stutz. 1994

    • Chapter 4: Resources and Environment
    • Chapter 10: Industrial Locations: Firms

"Economic Mineral Deposits" Jensen and Bateman. 1979

    • Chapter 1: Mineral Economics and Exploration
    • Chapter 22: Energy and Coal

"Living in the Environment: Concepts, Problems, and Alternatives" J.T. Miller, Jr. 1975

    • Chapter 13: Energy Resources: The Energy Crises
    • Chapter 18: Economics and the Environment
    • Enrichment Study 10: The nuclear energy dilemma
    • Enrichment Study 20: Some Energy Alternatives: Fusion, Solar, Geothermal, Wind, and Conservation

"Environmental Science: Action for a Sustainable Future" D. Chiras. 1994

    • Chapter 11: Nonrenewable Energy Sources
    • Chapter 12: Foundations of Sustainable Energy Strategy: Conservation and Renewable Energy

"Design for Environment" T.E. Graedel and B.R. Allenby. 1996

    • Chapter 1: Technology and the Environment
    • Chapter 3: Design for Energy Efficiency
    • Chapter 7: Environmental Interactions During Product Use

"Renewable Energy Resources" J. Twidell and T. Weir. 1994

    • Chapter 1: Principles of Renewable Energy
    • Chapters 5-16: Energy conversions including: Solar, Hydro, Wind, Biomass, Wave, Tidal, Ocean Thermal (OTEC), Geothermal, and energy storage and distribution

"Nuclear Energy: Principles, Practices, and Prospects" David Bodansky. 1996

    • Chapter 1: Nuclear Power Development
    • Chapter 15: Costs of Electricity from Nuclear Power
    • Chapter 16: The Prospects for Nuclear Power


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