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Geography of Labor Markets and Employment Patterns


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Job Market: U.S. workers in time crunch Seattle Times, September 15, 2002 By Kelly Pate The Denver Post

"Americans spend an average of 1,900 hours a year at work (or 237.5 days), according to the U.S. Census Bureau. While that might not sound all that high ... that's 20 more days each year than 25 years ago, and more than any other advanced nation, including Japan. Americans have fewer vacation and sick days than most of the industrial world. European vacation time averages about six weeks."

Dot-com casualties head back into battle, poorer and wiser Seattle Times, Sunday, September 17, 2000

By Margaret Steen and Joelle Tessler Knight Ridder Newspapers
SAN JOSE - A year ago, workers were flocking to Web start-ups from established companies. Competition for dot-com workers was so intense that many job seekers received multiple offers. The risks of going to work for a young, unproven Internet company existed mostly in theory. Today, as layoffs, bankruptcies and consolidation sweep the Internet-commerce and ...

The shocking truth about low unemployment rates; Seattle Times, June 8, 1999, E.J. Dionne/Syndicated columnist

WASHINGTON - The United States has been conducting a great economic experiment. It involves keeping unemployment rates at a historic low, over a long period. The results are in: Sustained low unemployment achieves the good results... Not only that: We've kept unemployment low without experiencing an upsurge of inflation... we may be in a time when low unemployment keeps inflation down because it forces companies confronted with a shortage of workers to become more efficient.

Food-service workers in short supply ; Seattle Times, December 30, 1998, by Kerry Webster

As the economy continues to roar along, many restaurants are finding it hard to attract and keep workers. Some industry groups are worried about the first years of the new decade, when the pool of younger workers will be smaller."

Minorities and women pay in grief for jobs on the docks; Seattle Times, Sunday, March 23, 1997 by Stanley Holmes.


Adam, A., et al., eds., "Women, Work and Computerization: Breaking Old Boundaries - Building New Forms. North Holland 1994. [HD6052.I34]

Akerlof, George, and Janet Yellen (1986). Efficiency Wage Models of the Labor Market. (Cambridge, England: Cambridge, University Press).

Appelbaum, E. and R. Schettkat, eds., Labor Market Adjustments to Structural Change and Technological Progress. Praeger, N.Y.

Blackburn, McKinley L., David E. Bloom, and Richard B. Freeman (1990). "The Declining Economic Position of Less Skilled American Men," in Gary Burtless, ed., A Future of Lousy Jobs? Washington, D.C.: Brookings.

Bound, John, and George Johnson (1992). "Changes in the Structure of Wages During the 1980's: An Evaluation of Alternative Explanations," American Economic Review, Vo. 82, 371-392.

Bound, John and Richard B. Freeman (1992). What went wrong? The erosion of the relative earnings and employment of young black men in the 1980s. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 107, No. 1, 201-232.

Braddock, Jomills Henry II, and James M. McPartland (1987). "How Minorities Continue to Be Excluded from Equal Employment Opportunities: Research on Labor Market and Institutional Barriers," Journal of Social Issues, Vol.43, No.1, pp.539.

Business Week, June 28, 1993. "Work and Family: Companies are starting to respond to workers' needs -- and gain from it,"pp.80ff.

Cain, Glen G. (1986). "The Economic Analysis of Labor Market Discrimination: A Survey," in O. Ashenfelter and R. Layard, eds., Handbook of Labor Economics, Volume 1, (Elsevier Science Publishers BV) 693785.

Capelli, Peter. (1993). "Are Skill Requirements Rising? Evidence from Production and Clerical Jobs." Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 46, No. 3, 515-530.

Cooke, Thomas J. "City-Suburb Differences in Afican American Male Labor Market Achievement," Professional Geographer 48(4), November 1996, 458-67.

Elliott, Charles K., et al., "Changing U.S.Labor Force Presents New Challenges for Corporations," Site Selection, June 1993, pp.618ff.

Ellwood, David T. (1986). "The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis: Are There Jobs Missing in the Ghetto?" in Richard Freeman and Harry Holzer, eds., The Black Youth Employment Crisis. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

Farley, Reynolds et al.(1976). "Chocolate City, Vanilla Suburbs," Social Science Research Vol.7, pp.319-344.

Ferguson, Ronald (1993). New evidence on the growing value of skill and consequences for racial disparity and returns to schooling. Paper H9310, Malcom Wiener Center for Social Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Freeman, Richard B. (1989). Help wanted: Disadvantaged youths in a labor shortage economy. National Bureau of Economic Research, mimeo.

Freeman, Richard B. (1990). Labor market tightness and the mismatch between demand and supply of less educated young men in the United States in the 1980s. National Bureau of Economic Research, mimeo.

Haughton, G., Johnson, S., Murphy. and Thomas, K. (1993) Local Geographies of Unemployment, (Avebury, Aldershot).

Holloway, Steven R., "Job Accessibility and Male Teenage Employment, 1980-1990: The Declining Significance of Space?" Professional Geographer 48(4), November 1996, pp.445-58.

Holzer, Harry J. (1989). "The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis: What Has the Evidence Shown?," Urban Studies, Vol. 28, pp. 105122.

Holzer, Harry J., Keith R. Ihlanfeldt and David L. Sjoquist (1994). "Work, Search, and Travel among White and Black Youth, Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 35, pp. 320-345.

Howell, David R. and Edward N. Wolff (1991). "Skill Changes in the U.S. Labor Force, 19601985," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 44(3) (April): 481-501.

Immergluck, Daniel. Job Proximity and the Urban Employment Problem: Do Suitable Nearby Jobs Improve Neighbourhood Employment Rates? Urban Studies, Volume 35 Number 1 January 1998, pp.7ff. [Comments and Reply in one of next issues]

Jackson, Susan E. (1991). Team composition in organizational settings: Issues in managing an increasingly diverse workforce. In S. Worchel, W. Wood, and J. Simpson, eds., Group process and productivity, 138173. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Jobs for the Future (1995). Information from focus groups of young, inner city men of color, for work in progress for the Annie E. Casey Foundation. Boston, MA.

Johnson, James H., Jr., Melvin L. Oliver, and Lawrence Bobo (1991). "A Proposal for the Los Angeles Survey on Urban Inequality." Unpublished grant proposal, October.

Johnston, William B. and Arnold E. Packer (1987). Workforce 2000: Work and Workers for the 21st Century. (Indianapolis: Hudson Institute and U.S. Department of Labor)

Kasarda, John D. (1990). "Structural Factors Affecting the Location and Timing of Urban Underclass Growth," Urban Geography, Vol.11, No.3 (June), 234-264.

Katz, Lawrence F., and Kevin M. Murphy (1992). "Changes in Relative Wages, 19631987: Supply and Demand Factors," Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 107, No. 1, 35-78

Kirschenman, Joleen (1991). "Gender Within Race in the Labor Market," Department of Sociology & The Center for the Study of Urban Inequality, University of Chicago, presented at the Urban Poverty and Family Life Conference, University of Chicago, October 1012, 1991, mimeo

Kirschenman, Joleen, and Kathryn M. Neckerman (1991). " 'We'd Love to Hire Them, But...': The Meaning of Race for Employers," in Christopher Jencks and Paul Peterson, eds., The Urban Underclass (Washington, D.C.: Brookings).

McLafferty, Sara and Valerie Preston, "Spatial Mismatch and Employment in a Decade of Restructuring," Professional Geographer. 48(4), November 1996, pp.420-31.

Los Angeles Times (1991). "Los Angeles County Population Figures," May 6, 1991, p.B3.

Meulders, D., Plasman, R. and Stricht, V.V. (1993) Position of Women on the Labour Market in the European Community, (Dartmouth, Aldershot).

Michie, J. and Smith, J.G. (eds) (1994) Unemployment in Europe, (Academic Press, London).

Mishel, Lawrence, and Ruy A. Teixeira (1990). The Myth of the Coming Labor Shortage: Jobs, Skills, and Incomes of America's Workforce 2000. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute.

Moss, Philip and Chris Tilly (1995a). "'Soft' Skills and Race: An Investigation of Black Men's Employment Problems. Working Paper No. 80, Russell Sage Foundation, New York.

Moss, Philip and Chris Tilly. (1995b). "Skills and Race in Hiring: Quantitative findings from Face to Face Interviews," Eastern Economic Review, Vol.21, No.3, 357-74.

Moss, Philip, and Chris Tilly (1991). Why Black Men Are Doing Worse in the Labor Market: A Review of SupplySide and DemandSide Explanations. (New York, NY: Social Science Research Council)

National Center on Education and the Economy, Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce (1990). America's Choice: High Skills or Low Wages! Rochester, New York.

Neckerman, Kathryn M., and Joleen Kirschenmen (1991). "Hiring Strategies, Racial Bias, and InnerCity Workers: An Investigation of Employers' Hiring Decisions," Social Problems, Vol.38, No.4, 801-15.

O'Neill, June (1990). "The Role of Human Capital in Earnings Differences Between Black and White Men," The Journal of Economic Perspectives,Vol. 4, Number 4, 25-46.

Osterman, Paul (1995). "Skill, Training, and Work Organization in American Establishments." Industrial Relations, Vol.34, No.2, 125-146.

Schor, Juliet B., The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure. Basic Books 1992.

Jeremy Rifkin, Vanishing Jobs, Some business leaders are concerned, but politicians seem strangely deaf to what is likely to be the most explosive issue of the decade. "Will there be a job for me in the new Information Age?" article in the September/October 1995 Mother Jones.

Scott, Allen J., "The Spatial Organization of a Local Labor Market: Employment and Residential Patterns in a Cohort of Engineering and Scientific Workers," Growth and Change 23(1), Winter 1992, pp.94-115.

Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (1991). What Work Requires of Schools: A SCANS Report for America 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor

Segal, Lewis M. and Daniel G. Sullivan, "The Temporary Labor Force," Economic Perspectives (Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago), March/April 1995, pp.2-19.

Tajfel, Henri and John C. Turner (1986). "The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behavior." In S. Worchel and W.G. Austin, eds., Pyschology of intergroup relations, 724. Chicago: NelsonHall.

Tsui, Anne S., Terri D. Egan, and Charles A. O'Reilly III (1992). "Being different: Relational Demography and Organizational Attachment." Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 549-579.

Thomas, David A. (1993). "Racial Dynamics in CrossRace Developmental Relationships," Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 169-194.

TIME, November 22, 1993. "What Ever Happened to the Great American Job? The rules of the game have changed forever. Here are the new ones," pp.32ff.

Trost, Alice E., Employment and the urban poor : the impact of job relocation. New York : Garland Pub., 1997 [Suzzallo/Allen Stacks HD5717.5.U6 T76 1997 xv, 143 p. : ill. ; 23 cm Garland studies in the history of American labor]

Tsui, Anne S. and Charles A. O'Reilly (1989). "Beyond Simple Demographic Effects: The Importance of Relational Demography in SuperiorSubordinate Dyads." Academy of Management Journal 32, 402-423.

Valenzuela, Abel, "Industrial and Occupational Change in Los Angeles: The Concentration and Polarization of Minority and White Laborers," in: Berkeley Planning Journal vol.6, 1991, pp.58ff.

Waldinger, Roger (1993). "Who Makes the Beds? Who Washes the Dishes? Black/Immigrant Competition Reassessed." Working Paper 246. Insitute of Industrial Relations, University of California at Los Angeles.

Wilson, William J. (1987), The Truly Disadvantaged. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

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