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Spatial Structure and Economic Change

Major Perspectives & Explanations in Economic Geography

(http://faculty.washington.edu/krumme/207/concepts/table.html)


Major Perspectives in Economic Geography The Explanandum*
(Typical 'Dependent' Variables in Geographic Research & Writing)
The Explanans*
(Important 'Independent'
Explanatory Variables)
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SPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION
  • Location
  • "Place" and "Locality"
  • Spatial Distribution
  • Location (retail, industrial, residential etc.)

  • Relative Location & Spatial Access

  • Density

  • Degree of Concentration (Clustering) or Dispersion

  • Size (of cities or facilities)

  • Internal (in-situ) structures (e.g. product mix, organizational setup etc.)

  • Place attributes; Locality characteristics
  • Classical, Primary & Geographic Forces:
    [ Hoover: "Three Foundation Stones"]
    1. Frictions of space (economic distance: communication- and transport costs, incl. cost of time)
    2. Dependence on land (land-intensiveness of residential, agricultural, recreational, industrial and service activities)
      • In a world in which natural resources are unevenly distributed: Distribution of natural resources (other than land per se)
    3. Internal and external economies of scale & scope ("agglomeration economies")
  • Others: Post-Classical, Derived, Secondary & Institutional Forces
    1. Uncertainty (Instability and Complexity)
    2. Power relations
    3. Technology
    4. Entrepreneurship
    5. Organization
    6. Distribution of man-made & human resources (incl. "Investment Inertia" and "Infrastructure")
    7. Cultural, "personal", and "subjective" factors: values, "conventions", habits, beliefs, biases & preferences etc.
  • SPATIAL INTERACTION PERSPECTIVES
  • Flows (of messages, goods & people)

  • Distances and direction

  • Routing in Networks

  • Origins and Destinations

  • Regional & Interregional Inter-Industry Transactions (Input-Output Analysis)
  • Factors related to "TRANSFERABILITY"

  • Factors related to "COMPLEMENTARITY"
    1. Sufficient Similarities
    2. Required Differentiation incl.
      • absolute and "comparative (relative) advantage"

  • RELATIVE ACCESSIBILITY & Lack of " INTERVENING OPPORTUNITIES"
  • ECONOMIC CHANGE,
    SPATIAL RESTRUCTURING &
    REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
    Change in spatial structures
    • Change in spatial distribution e.g. population densities,
    • Change in spatial interaction pattern, e.g. migration patterns)

    Regional economic development: e.g. Changes in

    • income,
    • employment,
    • human welfare,
    • quality of life
    Factors related to
    • Locational (dis-)advantages & locational change,
    • Spatial interaction stimuli and
    • Economic development conditions & events:

      e.g.

    • Natural resource endowment,
    • Human resources (skills, education),
    • Employment structure,
    • Organizational, institutional & political factors,
    • Access to capital, technology & entrepreneurship,
    • Trade, migration (e.g. "brain gain" or "brain drain")

    * Explanans & explanandum: from the latin verb explanare (to spread out). Explanans refers to the explaining variable, whereas explanandum is the variable which is supposed to be explained.


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