Spatial Structure and Economic Change
Major Perspectives & Explanations in Economic Geography
|Major Perspectives in Economic Geography
'Dependent' Variables in Geographic Research & Writing)
- "Place" and "Locality"
- Spatial Distribution
|Location (retail, industrial, residential etc.)
Relative Location & Spatial Access
Degree of Concentration (Clustering) or Dispersion
Size (of cities or facilities)
Internal (in-situ) structures (e.g. product mix, organizational setup
Place attributes; Locality characteristics
Classical, Primary & Geographic Forces:
Hoover: "Three Foundation Stones"]
Others: Post-Classical, Derived, Secondary & Institutional Forces
- Frictions of space (economic distance:
communication- and transport
costs, incl. cost of time)
- Dependence on land (land-intensiveness of residential,
agricultural, recreational, industrial and service activities)
- In a world in which natural resources are unevenly
of natural resources (other than land per se)
- Internal and external
economies of scale & scope ("agglomeration economies")
- Uncertainty (Instability and
- Power relations
- Distribution of man-made & human resources (incl. "Investment
Inertia" and "Infrastructure")
- Cultural, "personal", and "subjective" factors: values, "conventions",
habits, beliefs, biases & preferences etc.
Flows (of messages, goods & people)
Distances and direction
Routing in Networks
Origins and Destinations
Regional & Interregional Inter-Industry Transactions
Factors related to "TRANSFERABILITY"
Factors related to "COMPLEMENTARITY"
- Sufficient Similarities
- Required Differentiation incl.
- absolute and "comparative (relative) advantage"
RELATIVE ACCESSIBILITY & Lack of "
SPATIAL RESTRUCTURING &
Change in spatial structures
- Change in spatial distribution e.g. population
- Change in spatial interaction pattern, e.g. migration patterns)
Regional economic development: e.g. Changes in
- human welfare,
- quality of life
|Factors related to
- Locational (dis-)advantages & locational change,
- Spatial interaction stimuli and
- Economic development conditions & events:
- Natural resource endowment,
- Human resources (skills, education),
- Employment structure,
- Organizational, institutional & political
- Access to capital, technology & entrepreneurship,
- Trade, migration
"brain gain" or "brain drain")
* Explanans & explanandum: from the latin verb explanare (to
spread out). Explanans refers to the explaining variable, whereas
explanandum is the variable which is supposed to be explained.
Supporting & Related Pages:
Econ & Bus Geog