4TH GLOBAL BOTANIC GARDENS CONGRESS
June 2010, National Botanic Gardens of Ireland, Dublin
Established 1795 on 50 acres north of Dublin city center, on River Tolka.
NBG adjacent to Glasnevin Cemetery.
Peter Wyse Jackson is director.
Kavanagh’s Pub, also known as “Gravediggers” is next to gate of Glasnevin Cemetery on Prospect Square. Established 1833, reputed to be oldest pub in Dublin, has passed down through six generations of the family.
On an island in the River Suir, the site has been fortified since 3rd Century.
Castle built in 1142. Granted by King to Butler family in 1375.
Besieged and captured in 1599, 1647.
Surrendered to Cromwell in 1650.
Managed by OPW.
KILLARNEY NATIONAL PARK, ROSS CASTLE
Ancestral home of O’Donaghue clan. On Lough Leane.
Built in 1400’s.
Surrendered to Cromwell when he brought artillery onto the lake by boat up River Laune.
Killarney National Park contains good examples of the few remaining oak-yew woodlands of Ireland (Quercus robar, Q. petraea). Managed by OPW.
Old growth Arbutus unedo woodlands grow on rocky outcrops along lake.
MUCKROSS GARDENS AND MUCKROSS HOUSE
House built in 1843, now jointly managed by OPW and trustees.
Entire estate (10,000 acres) was purchased by W.B. Bourn as a wedding gift for his daughter Maude and her husband Arthur Vincent. Bourn was wealthy because of mining interests in U.S.; also involved with PG&E in California; built Filoli country estate.
Native forest is holly, oak and yew woodland on limestone.
PASS ABOVE BANTRY BAY
At moderate elevations (500m) upland heathers and blanket bogs flourish. This site above Glengarrif, passing out of County Kerry into County Cork.
GLENGARRIF, ILNACULLIN (GARINISH ISLAND)
Site is 37 acres and reachable only by boat.
Purchased by Annan and Violet Bryce in 1910 as a summer retreat. Most soil on site was barged in.
Bryce family planned to build a mansion, but lived in an extensive cottage instead.
Site is sheltered and has a Gulf Stream influence; a conifer shelter belt was established, then the gardens were planted.
The Martello tower had been built on the Island after an unsuccessful French invasion in 1796.
Harold Peto designed the gardens in what was the popular “wild Robinsonian style” widely used at the time.
Italian garden is the outstanding feature; it contains an Italian teahouse or “casita”.
Entire site is 316 ha, 12 km east of Cork City.
Initially owned by the Smith-Barry family, from grants by Henry II in 1177, following the Norman Invasion.
47 ha transferred to the State in 1996.
In 19th Century the modest hunting lodge was expanded; it is an example of Regency Architecture.
South County Cork has a more favorable climate for plants than Dublin; was ideal location to receive many accessions from 19th Centruy collectors working in S. America, N. America, Asia and Australasia.
Private land, 100 acres on a bend in the River Suir.
Ambrose Congreve built garden, inspired by the Rothschild Garden at Exbury.
He preferred mass plantings of rhododendron, camellia, Japanese maple, magnolia.
GLENDALOUGH MONASTIC SITE
Saint Kevin is said to have founded site in 600 AD
Saint Laurence O’Toole became abbott in 1150.
Destroyed by English in 1398
Elements of site: gateway, round tower, cathedral, St. Kevin’s church (11th or 12th Century), priests’ house, St. Kieren’s church, St. Mary’s church, Trinity church, St. Savious’ church)
WICKLOW MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK, BLANKET BOG
In Wicklow gap, above Glendalough.
Mountains are 700 to 900 m, so gap is probably a little over 500 m.
Erica cinerea, Erica tetralix, Eriophorum spp.
NBG KILMACURRAGH ARBORETUM, COUNTY WICKLOW
Well known for conifers and calcifuges (limestone-avoiding plants).
Contains southern hemisphere trees such as Athrotaxis, Fitzroya, Podocarpus, Saxegothaea.
House built in Queen Anne style in 1697.
Initial planting in 1700’s, then as a refuge for plants sensitive to less-favorable Glasnevin site conditions in 1850’s.
Planted in 19th Century by Thomas Acton with help from Glasnevin.
Fell into neglect in 20th Century; fires in 1978 and 1982 destroyed roof of house.
Just became a part of NBG system.
CLONMACNOISE, COUNTY OFFALY (clon mac nwas)
This monastic site contains the ruins of a castle, cathedral, eight churches, two round towers, three high crosses, and many Christian grave slabs.
St. Ciarán founded monastery in 545 AD.
It was on a main road between two kingdoms, and sited where people crossed the Shannon.
Many Kings of Tara and Connacht buried there.
Monastery attracted scholars from across Europe; it was a scriptorium from 8th to 10th Century.
Frequently attacked by Vikings, Normans and Irish from 8th to 12th Century and destroyed by fire 13 times; each time the monks rebuilt.
In 1552, completely destroyed by the English.
THE BURREN, COAST ROAD BETWEEN BALLYVAUGHAN AND LISDOONVARNA
Burren means a rocky place.
In it, beds of limestone from the carboniferous period are separated by thin layers of chert.
Water flows into the limestone and along the chert, dissolving the limestone.
Weathered joints in the limestone are called Grikes.
Water flows through the grikes into subterranean karstic watercourses.
70% of Ireland’s 900 native species occur here in less than 0.5% of its area.
Arctic/alpine species are found in the Burrenn (Dryas octopetala and Minuarta verna).
Calcicole and calcifuges species occur side by side as limestone-based soil and acidic rock soil grid the landcape.
22 of Ireland’s 27 native orchids occur in the Burren.
Shattered limestone spp.: Rosa pimpinellifolia, Prunus spinosa, Thymus praecos, Teucrium scorodonia, Sesleria albicans.
Blocky limestone w/ fissures: ferns such as Phyllitis scolopendrium, Adiantum capillus-veneris, and mosses
Thin, nutrient-poor soils form limestone heath: Calluna vulgaris, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Deeper, wider grikes support trees: Fraxinus excelsior, prostrate Frangula alnus, scrub Corylus avellana.
Stone bramble, Rubus saxatilis, is common.
THE BURREN, POULNABRONE DOLMEN
A portal dolmen dating to Neolithic period, 4200 to 2900 BC.
From 16-22 adults and 6 children buried in it.
O’CONNOR’S PUB IN DOOLIN
Founded 1832. Live music.
CLIFFS OF MOHER
700’ Atlantic cliffs, County Clare.
O’Brien’s tower was built in 1835 for tourists.
Special protection status for seabirds: Puffins, Guillemots, Razorbills, Kittiwakes.
THE BURREN, COOLE-GARRYLAND NATURE RESERVE: HAZEL WOODLAND AND MARL TURLOUGH LAKE
Seasonal lakes in karst limestone.
Can be inundate in winter and dry in summer.
Water flows down “swallow holes”.
Marl soils dominate.
Until 1922, the fortified seat of British rule in Ireland.
Most buildings are from the 1700’s
St. Patrick’s Hall (1790).
Throne was built for the visit of George IV in 1821.
Charles Stewart Paarnell 1846-1891.
Member of British House of Commons
Champion of Land Reform
Daniel O’Connell was 19th Century Nationalist leader; he achieved Catholic Emancipation.
In 1916, during the Easter Rising, the Post Office Building was seized and held by Irish Republicans.
A tidal river through Dublin.
Founded in 1592 by Elizabeth I.
The Catholic Church forbade its followers from attending until late 20th Century.
Women admitted in 1904.
Book of Kells (800 AD) and Long Hall are here.
Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde, Samuel Beckett, Bram Stoker studied here.
Current enrollment 15,000.
CHRIST CHURCH CATHEDRAL
Originally built in 1030.
Present shape the result of Anglo-Norman rebuilding in 1180.
As a consequence of Reformation in 1530 under Henry VIII, became Anglican.
Founded by a Scotsman in 1780.
Irish whiskey here is triple distilled; malted barley is not dried over a peat fire as in Scotch whiskey. Actual distillery operation moved south to Waterford in 1971.
St James Gate has been address since 1759.
Arthur Guinness started the business and lived at the site; he and his wife had 21 children.
Guinness began by brewing an ale , but tasted a porter that was in fashion in England and switched.
Called his product Extra Stout Porter.