Nice use of 'syllepsis' in NYT headline: Mel Patton, 89, Who Shattered a Leg and Then Sprinting Records, Is Dead.
Two Drafts. I testified before the Seattle School Board some time ago. I don't think you need to understand the technical issues or the background. I offer these examples to give you some sense for how a first draft becomes a final draft.
My first draft is basicallly my organization of a freewrite, and its goal is to clarify for myself what I want to say. Several drafts ensued before getting to the final draft, but my revision goal was not to get too fancy, but to sound reasonable while emphasizing the basic points I wanted my audience--the school board--to understand and remember. So you will see rhetorical questions and repetitions, nothing more elaborate than that.
This speech had to be delivered in under three minutes, so it's shorter than the five-minute speech I asked you to write.
What's the second thing you need to do? Revise. First drafts are never final drafts. Here's Andy:
That golden rule that "writing is rewriting" gets ignored a lot. Completing it is one thing, but then going back to the beginning and completing it again is the most important part of the process. In fact, I would say "completing it again and again." You should rewrite your rewriting too.
When I spoke with Harvard professor Steven Pinker, he said the same thing. Here’s Steven:
Much advice on good writing is really advice on revising. Because very few people are smart enough to be able to lay down some semblance of an argument and to express it in clear prose at the same time. Most writers require two passes to accomplish that. And after they’ve got the ideas down, now it’s time to refine and polish. Because the order in which ideas occur to a writer is seldom the same as the order that are best digested by a reader. And often, good writing requires a revising and rearranging the order of what you introduce so that the reader can easily follow it.
First pass: Content; Second Pass: Clarity; Third Pass: Correctness. You can't rewrite if you haven't written something in the first place. Bullet pointin your ideas is not good enough. Read the rest of the article, but I disagree with the guy he quotes that says if you're having a good time you're not doing a good job. There is always a certain amount of anguish in every creative enterprise, but that doesn't mean that there isn't a lot of satisfaction in it when it's working.
Wednesday, November 12, 2015
Midterm Review Session, Wednesday, November 18, 4pm in BAEEC 320
I showed "Talking Money" in Class 13, but I'm also including some clips of students doing other parts of the business plan presentation.
None of these will be flawless, but each has virtues that I hope you
can learn from.
This time of the quarter is about integrating what you have learned. I recently came across an interesting five-minute speech by a very articulate high school student regarding teacher evaluations and the Common Core. I thought it might be useful for me to use the tools taught in class to evaluate it. Watch the clip, and then read my analysis that follows it:
Primary Objective: To argue against adoption of the common core and a rigid, test-based teacher evaluation system (Apex).
Audience: Primary: Not clear. Looks like a school board. Secondary: Teachers in audience. The rest of us in YouTube Land
Resistance Frames: People in the audience are likely influenced by those who think teachers are to blame for the educational achievement gap. They they think incentivizing teachers with carrots and sticks based on rigorous evaluations will improve teacher performance and close the gap. They need a way to measure performance, and the best way to do that is by quantitative measurement of student progress on standardized tests. The audience wants data because it can be objectively evaluated; the process is otherwise too subjective. If the goal is to get the audience to vote No on adoption of the common core and the Apex teacher evaluation system, you have to work within that frame or crash it.
Ethos: Student doesn't try to establish his own credentials; he relies on his passion and eloquence, pathos and logos, to establish his credibility. His credibility largely lies in his precocity--the smart, idealistic, articulate young person that adults love.
Counterframe Strategy: Three pronged:
First, attack legitimacy of the process by which the common core was developed and adopted. This part of the speech does not seek to challenge the Data-centered frame described above; it tries to show that there is no solid data or research that supports the common core, there was no democratic process to legitimate it, and suggests that the people pushing it have a conflict of interest. [I think this is a pretty powerful indictment, and should give the audience pause.]
Second, attack the effectiveness of the Apex teacher evaluation system by promoting a more positive image of teachers, and by ridiculing the idea of teachers jumping through flaming hoops by holding them accountable for something they can't control--the engagement and motivation of their students. [I think this section could have been stronger. I would have added arguments about teachers and intrinsic motivation a la Dan Pink. Carrots and sticks don't improve results for people who do high-level cognitive work.]
Third, crash the data-centric "industrial model" frame from which the proposed high-stakes testing and teacher evaluation systems have been developed. Argue that these systems are designed for what's good for bureaucrats and not for what's good for student learning. Plead for education policies that are designed for humans, not robots. Education is about creativity, appreciation, and inquisitiveness, not just job training. [I think this is the strongest part of the speech.]
Tactics: Lots of facts. Uses irony, questions, quotes, analogy, and impassioned (yang) delivery.
My Critique: I think this is a fine speech, but it could have been better if it followed the Ciceronian strategy I teach in class. The opening is weak. His comments about hoping he can be disproved, I guess, are intended to show he's open minded, but I think they waste time and muddy the waters. He does nothing to establish his credibility, but given the time constraints, it could be argued that his credibility is carried by his passion, his verbal agility, and his intelligence. He can get away with a weak opening because he will have no problem getting his audience's attention.
I think a bigger flaw lies in that his problem/solution dynamic is weak. His Narration section, where he lays out the "facts" about the illegitimate process by which the Common Core was adopted, makes no attempt to show that he understands the "problem" from the audience's point of view. He needs to address the pathos frame that the audience is living in, which is the desire to close the achievement gap. That should be the key to his developing a motivating problem.
The student speaker isn't addressing that as a problem or proposing an alternative solution. So it's easy for the audience to say, "I admire your convictions, but I'm still stuck with a serious problem, and while my solution isn't perfect, at least I'm trying to do something. What's your alternative." He has none, at least not one that he emphasizes. "Do no harm" is implied, but he needs to emphasize it more.
Regarding the close, Ben Franklin quote was a nice touch, and I liked his punchline last sentence, but I didn't find the longer McFarland quote helpful. Too much noise and not enough signal. What does he want his audience to do? It ends on a negative--not that, but then what? Vague change?
The student's argument lies on a demonstrative (values) level--it's about legitimacy, conflicts of interest, and robots v. humans. I agree with him (see below), but he needs to add a deliberative dimension (we can go this way or that way), even if it's to make an argument that to do nothing is better than to do something that has so much damaging potential. It's not clear what alternative action step he wants the board to take. If it's 'do no harm', he has to make that clearer.
I am sympathetic to the argument this student is making. But to a large extent it plays to the people sitting behind him more than it does to the people on dais before him. The people on dais are his primary audience because they are the ones making the decision. It might get some of the undecided board members to consider wanting more time to think before voting, but I think a more effective argument is possible.
I have made a very similar demonstrative argument here in Education Week. My goal in it is to crash the technocratic frame, and to offer a alternative humanistic frame. It is not policy oriented. If I were testifying before that board, I would focus more intently on a making a concrete policy choice: Don't go this way; go that way.
For those of you interested in a follow-up to some of the grammar problems we talked about this quarter, here's an interesting article in the NY Times about hyphen use, danglers, and the restrictive and nonrestrictive use of commas.
Synathroesmus: piling up of adjectives or other modifiers for hyperbolic, often comic effect. Example: That worthless, dirty, rotten, good-for-nothing, thieving, mother-loving SOB!
Catalogues: Lists of objects, events, or ideas that add specificity and vividness to your writing. Example: It was your typical downtown, fair-trade kind of coffee shop, with a dog chained out front, students inside chained to their laptops, and a long line of hipster types waiting for their coffee.
Triad: Any list of words of clauses with three elements in it. I came; I saw; I conquered.
Denotation & Connotation. Denotaton is the dictionary definition of a word; connotation are the ideas and feelings that are associated with a word. 'Fortuitous' denotes by chance or accident, but it connotes good fortune. Don't use a word to convey its denotative meaning if it's likely to be understood by its connotative meaning.
David Brooks on the importance of soft skills in a future shaped by artificial intelligence:
In the age of smart machines, we’re not human because we have big brains. We’re human because we have social skills, emotional capacities and moral intuitions. I could paint two divergent A.I. futures, one deeply humanistic, and one soullessly utilitarian.
In the humanistic one, machines liberate us from mental drudgery so we can focus on higher and happier things. In this future, differences in innate I.Q. are less important. Everybody has Google on their phones so having a great memory or the ability to calculate with big numbers doesn’t help as much.
In this future, there is increasing emphasis on personal and moral faculties: being likable, industrious, trustworthy and affectionate. People are evaluated more on these traits, which supplement machine thinking, and not the rote ones that duplicate it.
Read the rest of the article if you want to know his ideas about the other soullessly utilitarian future.
Quote of the Day Matt Taibbi on Sarah Palin's Use of Identity Strategy and dog-whistly language at GOP National Convention:
Before I have any chance of noticing it she’s moved beyond the speaking part of the program and is suddenly, effortlessly, deep into the signaling process, a place most politicians only reach with great effort, and clumsily, if at all. But Palin is the opposite of clumsy: she’s in the dog-whistle portion of the speech and doing triple lutzes and back-flips. She starts talking about her experience as mayor of Wasilla, Alaska:
I guess a small-town mayor is sort of like a “community organizer,” except that you have actual responsibilities. I might add that in small towns, we don’t quite know what to make of a candidate who lavishes praise on working people when they are listening and then talks about how bitterly they cling to their religion and guns when those people aren’t listening. We tend to prefer candidates who don’t talk about us one way in Scranton and another way in San Francisco.
The TV talking heads here will surely focus on the insult to Barack Obama and will miss the far more important part of this speech, the fact that Palin has moved from talking about small-town folks as They a few seconds ago to We now— We don’t know what to make of this, We prefer this. It doesn’t take a whole lot of thought to figure out who this We is. Certainly, to those listening, if you’re part of this We, you know. If you’re not part of it, as I’m not, you know even more.
(From Griftopia, pp. 6-7)
Yes We Can. In
class I excerpted a part of Obama's speech after his primary defeat in
New Hampshire to provide an example of the use of the 'epistrophe'. This
is one of Obama's best rhetorical moments.
Here's the original speech.
You will also see that he uses the yes-we-can repetition also as an 'anaphora'--beginning
sentences and clauses.
Here's the will.i.am version:
Terms You Should Know:
Anaphora: Repetitions in which the repeated word, phrase, or clause comes at the beginning. Example: "Where is the Life we have lost in living? Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?" T.S. Eliot [This quote also uses erotesis.]
Epistrophe: Repetitions in which the repeated word, phrase, or clause comes a the end. Example: "Where affections bear rule, their reason is subdued, honesty is subdued, good will is subdued, and all things else that withstand evil, for ever are subdued." — Thomas Wilson
Symploce: Repetitions in which the repeated word or phrase comes at both the beginning and the end: “The opposite of love is not hate, it's indifference. The opposite of art is not ugliness, it's indifference. The opposite of faith is not heresy, it's indifference. And the opposite of life is not death, it's indifference.” Elie Wiesel [This quote also uses antithesis]
Another example: "There is no Negro problem. There is no Southern problem. There is no Northern problem. There is only an American problem." Lyndon Johnson [This quote also uses antithesis in that in contrasts the first three items in the list with the last.]
Hypophora: Rhetorical question that both asks an answers the question. Example: "Is this any way to run an airline? You bet it is.
Erotesis: For our purposes, a piling on of one rhetorical question after the other to create dramatic intensity. Example: See opening of Simon Sinek TED talk below.
Simon Sinek's Golden Circle:
As background for the Gordon Gecko speech, I just came across this 2012 Stephen Colbert interview with Jennifer Burns, a Stanford history professor who wrote a biography of Ayn Rand entitled Goddess of the Market. I think you'll see why the Gecko speech comes out of what I described in class as the Ayn Rand playbook:
Virtually every top M.B.A. program in the country now teaches ethics classes, many of them required. In 2008, a coalition of students started the MBA Oath, a voluntary pledge among students to “create value responsibly and ethically.” So far, more than 6,000 students have signed the pledge.
And yet, the report and other anecdotal evidence suggest that whatever is being done both in the classroom and on the job is not enough. According to a controversial study called “Economics Education and Greed” that was published in 2011 by professors at Harvard and Northwestern, an education in economics surprisingly may be making the problem worse.
“The results show that economics education is consistently associated with positive attitudes towards greed,” the authors wrote. “The uncontested dominance of self-interest maximization as the primary (if not sole) logic of exchange, in business schools and corporate settings alike, may lead people to be more tolerant of what other people see as morally reprehensible.”
David Rose in a TED talk on pitching to venture capitalists like him. The whole thing is worth watching, but you can start at the five- minute mark if you want to save some time (h/t Billy Rex):
Thursday, October 29, 2015
More verbal incoherence from politicians. Start at around the 4 minute mark:
Here's the link to
the Alec Baldwin AIDA speech form Glengarry Glenross
Remote Area Medical is
not the Dr. O'Mara model for delivering healthcare to people who can't afford
it, but it gives you an idea why something like it is needed, and not just
in southern Georgia. From Sixty Minutes.
link with information about Remote Area Medical.
Two studies conducted by Cameron Anderson and Gavin J. Kilduff in 2009 found that people who speak up and act dominant will be perceived as competent even if they aren’t. They merely appear so because they believe so completely in their own competence. So what does this teach us? Speak up. Speak first. Speak often. Stop overthinking and delaying what you want to say. Stop being fearful; instead, trust in yourself. Have confidence in your knowledge. Focus more on what you know and less on what others think. Identify two different situations in which you decide to speak up and speak often. You might have to leave your comfort zone, but do it. You’ll be heard and seen as competent, and you’ll notice others’ perceptions of you starting to shift favorably as you contribute more often.
Terms you should know:
Rhetorical Frame: It's the dominant ideas, values or emotional framework within which a persuasive message is presented. A logos frame appeals to facts, analytical prowess, competency, practicality, getting things done. An ethos frame appeals to the speaker's power, credibilitiy, likability, charisma, attractiveness, humor, good guyness, which can often trump a logos frame. Pathos frames work with the desires and fears of the audience. Ryan uses a pathos frame for Bob in the Up in the Air clip when he reframes Bob's pity party as an opportunity to do what he's always wanted to do, and as a more effective way to win the respect of his children.
Identity Strategy: Deployed when goal is to win over your audience by using ethos-centric rhetorical techniques designed to show the audience that you are one of them, that you can be trusted, that your values align wih their values. It uses tribal language, code grooming (shibboleths, dog whistle language, etc.)
Denotation & Connotation. Denotaton is the dictionary definition of a word; connotation are the ideas and feelings that are associated with a word. 'Fortuitous' denotes by chance or accident, but it connotes good fortune. Don't use a word to convey its denotative meaning if it's likely to be understood by its connotative meaning.
Code Grooming: Using language that has special resonance or meaning with your audience that it would not have for people outside who don't "get it". It's a tactic for deploying the identity strategy.
AIDA: Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action. Think of each as successive stages moving your audience from resistance to compliance. These steps are the basic logic of most persuasive written messaging, and are implied in much face-to-face persuasive messaging as well.
Motivating Problem: What you seek to establish in the Interest phase of AIDA. It's about focusing audience awareness of a problem they may only be dimly aware of or feel is not worth paying attention to. The goal is to fan a low-heat problem into a high-heat problem so as to make audience so uncomfortable that they are desperate for a solution.
Primary Benefit: Part of the Desire phase of AIDA. It's whatever it takes to prove to your audience that your solution solves the motivating problem.
Secondary Benefit: A sweetener that adds inessential value. When deciding between two vacuum cleaners for the same price that do an equally good job of solving the motivating problem, you might decide on the basis of secondary benefits, perhaps one has an attachment that adds value the other does not.
Ambivert: Introverts who can work effectively in groups and extroverts who can work alone.
Irony: Saying something but meaning the opposite. Sarcasm, understatement (said of an amputated limb: it's just a scratch), hyperbole (said of a scratch: OMG--it's a festering pustule of gangrenous infection!)
Reductio ad absurdum: To make opponent's position or argument look ridiculous by comparing it to something similar that is obviously ridiculous. If it's ridiculous to put a skull & crossbones on cheddar cheese, then it's equally ridiculous to put it on a pack of cigarettes.
WASHINGTON—Faced with ongoing budget crises, underfunded schools nationwide are increasingly left with no option but to cut the past tense—a grammatical construction traditionally used to relate all actions, and states that have transpired at an earlier point in time—from their standard English and language arts programs.
A part of American school curricula for more than 200 years, the past tense was deemed by school administrators to be too expensive to keep in primary and secondary education.
"This was by no means an easy decision, but teaching our students how to conjugate verbs in a way that would allow them to describe events that have already occurred is a luxury that we can no longer afford," Phoenix-area high-school principal Sam Pennock said. "With our current budget, the past tense must unfortunately become a thing of the past."
Despite concerns that cutting the past-tense will prevent graduates from communicating effectively in the workplace, the home, the grocery store, church, and various other public spaces, a number of lawmakers, such as Utah Sen. Orrin Hatch, have welcomed the cuts as proof that the American school system is taking a more forward-thinking approach to education.
"Our tax dollars should be spent preparing our children for the future, not for what has already happened," Hatch said at a recent press conference. "It's about time we stopped wasting everyone's time with who 'did' what or 'went' where. The past tense is, by definition, outdated."
Hypophora: Ask a rhetoriical question, then answer it. "Is this any way to run an airline? You bet it is.
Chiasmus: AB BA pattern that often creates a clever antithesis. "You can take boy out of the country, but you can't take the country out of the boy.
Anadiplosis: AB BC CD, etc., usually with a punchline to sum it up. We saw a ridiculous example in the Animal House clip, but it can be used to make a more serious point, too:
Watch your thoughts, they
Watch your words, they become actions.
Watch your actions, they become habits.
Watch your habits, they become your character.
Watch your character, it becomes your destiny.
They call for you: The general who became a slave; the slave who became a gladiator; the gladiator who defied an Emperor. Striking story." —Commodus, Gladiator (2000 film)
Here's another example:
EQ Tip of the Day: Is the look that your are projecting to the world one that you have chosen, one that your mood created or one that you tend to lean on by default? What you project reflects how you feel, and it's up to you to understand it.
For instance, what you wear sends a pretty clear message about how you feel. Wearing old sweatpants and ratty T-shirts and having disheveled hair every day tells the world you've given up, while overdressing for every occasion and never missing your weekly haircut lets people know you are trying too hard.
When you meet new people are you aloof and cool, or are you overeager to please? Be aware of how your emotions affect your demeanor, and think about whether they are helping you or undermining you.
Quiz 2 is on Thursday. Focus on Study Guide, Days 4, 5, and 6. Be prepared to correct punctuation in some sentences and to rewrite other sentences by identifying hidden verbs and creating a new active voice clauses with them.
Is the use of 'who' correct here:
In stark contrast to Mill, who we discussed last week as a key figure in the articulation of libertarianism, Hayek does not begin his analysis with a condemnation of the “tyranny” of tradition and custom.
EQ Tip of the Day:Take control of your Self Talk. Research suggest the average person has about 50,000 thought every day. Every time one of those thoughts takes place, chemicals are produced in your brain that trigger reactions felt throughout your body.
There is a strong relationship between what you think and how you feel, both physically and emotionally. Because you are always thinking (much like breathing), you tend to forget that you are doing it. So if you have some self-talk bad habits, it might help to change them. For instance, instead of "I always" or "I never", say "Tthis time" (I screw up); instead of "I'm an idiot, say "I made a mistake".
Another example of how not using the Oxford Comma can get you in trouble:
Have you started your diary or journal yet?
Quote of the Day: Jamie Moyer
Like anything, it takes practice. And you have to create repetition. But it all comes down to risk and taking a chance. You have to learn that’s OK. Harvey taught me that we all have fears in life, but you don’t want to feel fear of failure. I feared that. And what happens when all of your energy goes into that fear instead of the actual act itself, and doing it positively and doing it correctly? If I have a lot of fears and focus on that, how successful do you think I’m going to be?
But learning to say, you know, I’m just going to let that go. I’ve done my preparation. I’ve done that preparation mentally. And where it takes me, it takes me. (Source)
It's not just about sports--it's about doing anything that requires stretching yourself outside your comfort zone. Moyer learned that what mattered wasn't what others thought about him but rather his sense of mission about doing as much as he could with the modest stuff that he had.
Hilda was a client in
the past, but she chose not to use your tax prep services this year. She
tried to save money by preparing her taxes herself.
You have the conversation
in question recorded, so there is no dispute about what actually was discussed
in the phone conversation in April. You need to find a proactive
approach. Don't be defensive or reactive.
The mistake Hilda made was to think that her bond mutual fund account was in an IRA or 401K. If it was, she could have rolled it over into another tax-deferred account. It wasn't tax-deferred, so she had to pay taxes on the capital gains that have accumulated since she invested in the mutual fund. The IRS is penalizing her because she didn't pay the tax on capital gains.
One of the major objectives of this assignment is to show me a little bit of emotional intelligence. That means you have to manage your own emotions in response to her threat to sue you, but also to manage her emotions by helping her see a positive way forward.
Your grade on this assignment
will depend more on the effectiveness of your sentences. Show me you've
learned something from our discussion of sentences in class next week.
Best way to keep problematic
words correctly in mind is to memorize model sentences like the ones listed below to use as a template. It's llke learning idioms when you study a foreign language.
The dog often lies here
by the fire.
The dog is lying by
The dog lay by the fire
for over two hours.
The dog has lain by
the fire since breakfast.
The counselor's advice
affected my thinking about dropping out of school.
The CEO effected significant
changes in budgetary policy within a week of his taking office.
His chewing me out had
quite a negative effect on my motivation.
I don't like your affect,
you ill-tempered, surly grump.
The team comprises fifteen
Fifteen members compose
(not comprise) the team.
The team is composed
of (not comprised of) fifteen members.
There are fewer houses for sale now than last year.
There is less housing available now compared to last year.
But the truth is that emotions guide our perceptions of the world, our memories of the past and even our moral judgments of right and wrong, most typically in ways that enable effective responses to the current situation. For example, studies find that when we are angry we are acutely attuned to what is unfair, which helps animate actions that remedy injustice. . . .
Second, emotions organize — rather than disrupt — our social lives. Studies have found, for example, that emotions structure (not just color) such disparate social interactions as attachment between parents and children, sibling conflicts, flirtations between young courters and negotiations between rivals.
Classroom Change for 830 section: Starting 10/15 class will meet in Dempsey 112.
More on Decorum:
Conjunctive Adverbs: Use a semicolon between independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb
(e.g., nevertheless, however, additionally, moreover, etc.).
Spelling bees were her
specialty; nevertheless, she failed to spell “urbiculture” correctly.
Terms you should know:
Coordinating Conjunctions: The seven conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so--or FANBOYS. Use them with a comma to join two independent clauses.
Oxford Comma: The comma used to set off the item in a list that precedes the 'and' before the last item in the list. (e.g., the comma that follows 'oranges' in the following list: apples, oranges, and grapes.
Emotional Intelligence: The ability to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of oneself, others, and groups.
Empathy: The ability the imaginative act of getting into the mind of another person and to see and feel the world as he or she does.
Conciseness: Writing that does not waste your reader's time. It's not about short vs. long. And the rule to keep memos and letters to one page is too restrictive. A message takes as long as it takes so long as the content is useful for the audience.
Practical Wisdom: The ability to use common sense in dealing withpeople within the social systems they inhabit to get things done. Street smarts. Uses both EQ and SQ. Someone with practical wisdom, says Heinrich, is known for his track record in getting things done, knows when to bend the rules, and knows how to present his solutions as taking a sensible middle course.
Reluctant Conclusion: A tool used when you have to tell an audience something it doesn't want to hear. You start off aligning yourself with the hopes of your audience, then you start preseenting evidence that shows that the hoped-for outcome is unattainable, so another undesirable but necessary course of action must be taken.
Strategy: How you organize your resources to accomplish your objectives.
Composition: The raw content of your message--the resources that your strategy seeks to organize into an effective meesage. The situation analysis, crux, and freewrite are compositional tools insofar as they help you to understand what you want to say.
Memory Curve: People are paying most attention at the beginning and end of a message, and so tend to not remember and understand material presented in the middle of a presentation. Make you openings and closes count, and break up long chunky sections.
Credibility: It means 'believability'. It's the measure of trust that your audience has in you, so it is in turn the measure of receptivity that your audience has for your message. People with low credibility can have great ideas for which audiences will have little receptivity, and people with high credibility will find audiences accepting even silly or stupid ideas. On the whiteboad (see above), I laid out the relationship of credibility to character, and character to virtue/vice, and virtue/vice to ethos.
Primary Audience - Secondary Audience: You design your message to obtain a thinking, feeling, or action response from your primary audience; you don't expect a response from your secondary audience. The secondary audience can be people you send the message to, as in a cc, and it can be anybody who reads the message whether you intend them to read it or not.
Primary Objective - Secondary Objective: The primary objective is reactive; it's about putting out the fire. The secondary objective is proactive; it's about looking for ways to go forward once the fire has been put out. Every message has a primary objective; not every message has a secondary objective. In my revision of the Goodwin message (see below), I make clarifying the misunderstanding the primary objective. The secondary objective is to sell him an overdraft line of credit or perhaps have him consolidate accounts with my bank. The original messages 1 & 2 had no secondary objectives.
Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases: Prepositions introduce phrases that play a modifying or descriptive function in a sentence, the way adjectives and adverbs do. In the sentence 'The dog under the table' is chewing a bone. The preposition is 'under' and the prepositional phrase is 'under the table'. The prepositional phrase plays the role of an adjective here. It's as if you're saying 'The under-the-table dog is chewing a bone'. Prepositional phrases always have objects, and when those objects are pronouns, they are in the accusative form: 'under him', 'between you and me'.
October 6, 2015
Use the Situation Analysis form at the top of the column to the left, and just
fill in the blanks. Don't worry if parts of it don't make sense. I'll explain it next class.
When you are trying
to define the issues, look at them in this case as being arranged concentrically,
with some issues more at the periphery influencing the most important
issue in the center. Which one is the crux?
When defining objectives
think about them in two categories: reactive--what you have to do at
a minimum to put out the metaphorical fires--and proactive--what possibilities
are there to go beyond the status quo ante.
When defining the audience,
the most important element is to define the audience's need, because what you choose
to include in your summary should be determined by its usefulness in
meeting your boss's need.
Your goal in
this assignment is to create a document that will be more useful or helpful
for your boss than the original article.
Dear Mr. Goodwin:
I am writing in response to your August 15 email
questioning the $108.00 in overdraft fees charged against your account.
After receiving your email we investigated to learn why you were charged, and we learned that a miscommunication between you and the United Oregon Bank led to the imposition of
In your email, you mentioned that you had instructed
the United Oregon Bank to transfer $45,000 to your account
here on August 1. It did not, however, make the transfer until August
10--which explains why on August 8 we charged your account for the overdraft.
We value your account with us, Mr. Goodwin. You have been
one of our most reliable and valued customers, and we understand that
miscommunications like this happen from time to time. On this occasion
we are happy to refund to you the $108. But please contact United Oregon
to be sure that they send future transfers on the date you specify.
Perhaps an overdraft line of credit would be appropriate
if you anticipate this kind of miscommunication in the future. You might
also consider consolidating your accounts in such a way as to make these
transfers unnecessary.We’ll have one of our personal bankers contact
you in the next week to see if we can help you to meet your banking needs
in a more streamlined way.
Note that this revision makes the misunderstanding issue the "crux", and adds a proactive dimension by seeking to flip the problem into an opportunity and move with Mr. Goodwin beyond the status quo ante.
You can practices the three-step who/whom process taught in class by going here and here. Use all three steps when you practice:
Bracket the dependent clause that follows the who/whom.
Insert a pronoun into the dependent clause that makes it into a complete sentence.
If the case of the pronoun is nominative, use who; it the case is accusative, use whom.
Go the source link for more on these other uses of who and whom. These rules are fine for when you have a who or whom that begins a sentence (or is used in any other role except introducing a dependent clause), but you have to use my three-step method when a who or who is a relative pronoun introducing a dependent clause. You might otherwise be misled to think that it would be ok to say "Give the prize to whomever you think deservers it." Give the prize to him, right? No.It's not right.
Tactical Concession: In an argument or attempt to persuade, a move to give up a short-term advantage in order to procure one that is long-term. Instead of challenging your opponent's facts or assumptions, you concede
that he is right. This has a disarming effect, and makes him feel that
he has been heard and is well understood.
Commonplace: values of a community summarized in ideas, often stereotypes and cliches, that everybody within a particular group accepts as true without thinking about it. Examples: Snails are slow. The
children are our future. Freedom isn't free. Everyone
has a right to choose. Politicians are hypocrites. Big corporations only care about profit, not people.
Relaxed intensity: The ideal stance any performer takes during a performance. It comprises both a loose, comfortable body posture at the same time as having a mindset that is highly focused and committed to performing the task at hand.
Exposition: presentation of the facts, background information, etc. It's the data dots required to be connected when you want to deliver an insight.
Insight: the experience of "getting it". A common example is getting a joke, but also the experience of understanding, for instance, why you use 'who' in a particular sentence instead of 'whom'. It's also experienced any time you get a satisfying answer to a question or solution for a problem.
Clause: A verbal construction that comprises both a subject and a verb. They come in different varieties. You need to understand the difference between an independent and dependent clause.
Nominative: Case for nouns and pronouns that function as subjects in clauses.
Accusative: Case for nouns and pronouns that function as objects of verbs and prepositions.
Analysis/synthesis: Polarity defined by, on the on hand, breaking things down to understand the whole in its parts, and on the other, the process of understanding by assembling the parts into an integrated, functioni
October 1, 2015
Dan Pink video clip on motivation to be watched for homework and discussion in Class 2:
September 15, 2015
Welcome to Strategic
Communications for Fall Quarter 2015.
I'll be using this space as the quarter progresses
to summarize and amplify points that
I make in class with verbal commentary, video,
and other supplementary materials. Check in at least once a week
to make sure you're up to speed.
It will probably
take me until the end of the week to
get all the relevant links updated, but the ones that are live now
for the resources available here.
assignment links will be activated the class day I introduce the
if you miss class, you should know what the assignment is.