STYLE MANUAL FOR STUDENT PAPERS
|Using ideas or information that I read somewhere, without mentioning where I read it.||Using ideas or information that I read somewhere, and making it very clear where I read the ideas or information.|
|Copying a table, figure, or image from somewhere, without mentioning where I obtained it.||Providing a clear reference to the origin of any tables, figures, or images that appear in my paper.|
|Writing three or more words in the same order as I read them somewhere, without using quotes.||Paraphrasing ideas and providing a reference, OR putting exact quotes in quotation marks and providing the reference and page number.|
CITING MATERIALS USED
You can use any referencing system, as long as you are consistent within a single paper. I prefer that you use the most common system in academic geography is the author, date (or CSE) system. Material from a specific source is followed by the author's last name and year of publication (or year of communication, if the material is unpublished). At the end of the text of the paper is a list of all materials cited, in alphabetical order by authors' last name. I prefer square brackets, which won't be confused with parenthesized text. I prefer to italicize the title of separately bound materials (like a book or a journal title, but not chapter or article titles).
|...The flexibility of these arrangements has increased with improvements and cost reductions in computing and communications technology, affecting the incomes, public-infrastructure needs, and private service requirements in exurban and rural locations [Beyers and Lindahl 1997a&b].||Beyers, W.B. and Lindahl, D.P.
use of occupations and external reliance on sectoral skills in the
services. paper prepared for the RESER conference, Roskilde,
Beyers, W.B. and Lindahl, D.P. 1997b. Strategic behavior and development sequences in producer service businesses. Environment and Planning A 29: 887-912.
|After presenting a range of regional systems of employment practices across Europe, Peck [1994: 169] cautioned that "the social and spatial context in general and the regulatory milieu in particular will have a major influence on the 'type' of labour-market flexibility which emerges in a region."||Peck, J. 1994. Regulating labour. Ch. 7 in A.Amin and N.Thrift, eds. Globalization, Institutions, and Regional Development in Europe. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.|
|"Warehousing involves the storage, processing and distribution of goods, as well as some manufacturing" [ILWU, 1997].||ILWU. 1997. History of the International Longshore and Warehouse Union. http://www.ilwu.com/tis.htm#The Warehouse Industry. accessed 16 Jan 1999.|
SOURCE: Donnelley, Inc. 1998: Table 4.
below the bottom of the table. Then, your reference list at the end of the paper would give a full citation for the Donnelly, Inc. publication or website from which you got the data.
Primary data, which you've collected by survey, interview,
or whatever, cannot be cited, but must be explained
Within the body of the paper, you should explain how and when you
the data. Fabrication of primary data is
the worst academic offense. Imagine how
much more messed
up the world would be if medical researchers or military intelligence
their research data. Don't do it; don't even approach doing
In a nutshell, use spell-checking software. If you're writing without a computer, be careful. I'm generally pretty lenient about misspellings in hand-written material, but here are three kinds of errors about which I will warn you now, and will grade down:
Commonly misspelled words:
"affect" and "effect"
Plurals and possessives of nouns ending in a "consonant-y"
|company||companies: Only three companies produce overdrive widgets in the U.S.||company's: The company's performance was much better in 1997.||companies': All three companies' profits were up last year.|
|country||countries: There are only three countries in North America.||country's: The country's trade balance was negative again in 1998.||countries': The EU countries' unemployment rates are all above ten percent.|
"Industry," "industries," "industry's," and "industries' " are a similar set of words that you will likely use in economic geography.
"Company" and "country" are each singular. When you use a pronoun for a company or country, use "it," not "they."
Text should be divided into sections and subsections,
and the title of each section or subsection should come before the
Above each table should be a number ("Table 1") and a clear title, that says what the cells of the table express. Within or underneath the title should be all key information:
Tables are numbered from 1 to however many there are in the
Each table can be inserted within the body of the paper, as soon as
after it is mentioned for the first time, or all the tables can appear
after the text and references.
Below each figure should be a number ("Figure 1") and a clear title, that tells what the figure illustrates. Within or underneath the title should be all key information:
Figures are numbered from 1 to however many there are in the paper. Each figure can be inserted within the body of the paper, as soon as possible after it is mentioned for the first time, or all the figures can appear after the text, references, and tables.