Taking advantage of methods pioneered in the Dickinson, Maimon and Wilson laboratories, we are recording from the mosquito antennal lobe during tethered flight.
To identify behaviorally effective volatiles from a complex bouquet, we take advantage of the GC-EAG or GC-SSR method that allows permits the rapid identification of compounds that stimulate the olfactory sensilla (GC-SSR) or antenna (GC-EAG) of an insect. The gas chromatograph (GC) is used for separating and determining the identity and relative abundance of compounds present in complex mixtures of volatiles, thereby allowing identification of the specific features (ie volatiles) that evoke strong olfactory responses.
Using genetically encoded calcium indicators (GCaMP6) we now have the ability to neural network responses in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes during tethered flight. Neuronal responses are recorded during different visual or olfactory stimulation.
Using implanted multichannel electrodes in the insect brain coupled with camera-based computer vision methods (to record behavioral responses), we now the ability to observe and manipulate the insect CNS during learning and behavior.
In collaboration with Eatai Roth, we use a locomotion compensator and a visual display to present stimuli to a tethered bee, thus enabling sensorimotor control and neurobiological experimentation in a fixed preparation. Trajectory information from the locomotion compensator can be sent to the visual display and allow the stimuli to move accordingly to the honeybee movement (e.g., close loop).
For polar, water-based compounds, we use a Waters Quattro Micro Liquid Chromatograph & Direct Infusion Mass Spectrometer for separation and mass identification of unknowns.
For separating light (<600 Da) and non-polar compounds in a complex mixture or scent, we use our Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer.
To examine the temporal dynamics of volatiles in real-time, we have an Aerodyne LToF-CIMS chemical ionization with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry for sensitive, real-time identification and quantification of gas-phase compounds in sampled air.
Our wind tunnel is shared between the Daniel and Riffell laboratories and allows free-flight testing of insects. Designed by Armin Hinterwirth, the tunnel has a 1m-by-1m-by-2m working section where laminar airflow enters the section. The tunnel includes a 3D video motion capture system and computer-controlled odor delivery.
We use the Reiser/Dickinson arena for testing mosquito olfactory, thermal, and visual responses.