On this page I collect together various papers, datasets and software that are related to the analysis of spatial epidemiological and small area data. I am particularly interested in:

**Methods:**- Wakefield, J., Simpson, D. and Godwin, J. (2016). Comment: Getting into Space with a Weight Problem. Discussion of, Model-based Geostatistics for Prevalence Mapping in Low-Resource Settings, by P.J. Diggle and E. Giorgi. To appear in
*Journal of the American Statistical Association*. Arxiv link here. - Chen, C., Wakefield, J., Self, S. and Rue, H. (2015). Bayesian Penalized Spline Models for the Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Count Data.
*Statistics in Medicine*, 35, 1848-1865. - Mercer, L., Wakefield, J., Pantazis, A., Lutambi, A., Masanja, H. and Clark, S. (2015). Small Area Estimation of Child Mortality in the Absence of Vital Registration. To appear in
*The Annals of Applied Statistics*Paper is here. - Ross, M.E. and Wakefield, J. (2015). Bayesian hierarchical models for smoothing in two-phase studies, with application to small area estimation.
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A*, 178, 1009-1023. - Smith, T., Wakefield, J. and Dobra, A. (2015). Restricted covariance priors with application in spatial statistics.
*Bayesian Analysis*, 10, 965-990. Paper can be found here. - Chen, C., Wakefield, J. and Lumley, T. (2014). The use of sampling weights in Bayesian hierarchical models for small area estmation.
*Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology*, 11, 33-43. - Mercer, L., Wakefield, J., Chen, C. and Lumley, T. (2014). A Comparison of spatial smoothing weighting methods for small area estimation.
*Spatial Statistics*, 8, 69-85. - Glynn, A. and Wakefield, J. (2014). Alleviating ecological bias in Poisson models using optimal subsampling: The effects of Jim Crow on black illiteracy in the Robinson data.
*Sociological Methodology,*44, 159-184. - Shaddick G., Lee D. and Wakefield J. (2013). Ecological bias in studies of the short-term effects of air pollution on health.
*International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation,*22, 65-74. - Wakefield, J. and Kim, A. (2013). A Bayesian model for cluster detection.
*Biostatistics*, 14, 752-765. - Wakefield, J., Haneuse, S., Dobra, A. and Teeple, E. (2011). Bayes computation for ecological inference.
*Statistics in Medicine,*30, 1381-1396. - Glynn, A. and Wakefield (2010). Ecological inference in the social sciences.
*Statistical Methodology*, 7, 307-322. - Wakefield, J. (2008). Ecologic studies revisited.
*Annual Review of Public Health*29, 75-90. annrev08.pdf - Wakefield, J. and Haneuse, S. (2008). Overcoming ecological bias using the two-phase study design.
*American Journal of Epidemiology*Published online February 12th, 2008. wakefieldhaneuseAJE.pdf - Haneuse, S. and Wakefield, J. (2008). The combination of ecological and case-control data.
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B*, 70, 73-93 haneusewakefieldRSSB.pdf. - Glynn, A., Wakefield, J., Handcock, M. and Richardson, T.S. (2008). Alleviating linear ecological bias and optimal design with subsample data.
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A*171, 179-202. glynnetalRSSA.pdf. - Haneuse, S. and Wakefield, J. (2007). Geographic-based ecological correlation studies using supplemental case-control data. To appear
*Statistics in Medicine*. - Wakefield, J. (2007) Geographical disease risk. To appear
*Encycloperdia of Risk*. - Salway, R. and Wakefield, J. (2007). A hybrid model for reducing ecological bias. To appear in
*Biostatistics*. Paper can be found here. - Haneuse, S., Wakefield, J. and Sheppard, L. (2007). The interpretation of exposure effect estimates in chronic air pollution studies. To appear in
*Statistics in Medicine*. Paper can be found here. - Haneuse, S. and Wakefield, J. (2007). Hierarchical models for combining ecological and case-control data.
*Biometrics*, 63, 128-136. Paper can be found here. - Wakefield, J. (2007). Disease mapping and spatial regression with count data.
*Biostatistics*, 8, 158-183. Paper can be found here. - Wakefield, J. and Shaddick, G. (2006). Health-exposure modelling and the ecological fallacy.
*Biostatistics*, 7, 438-455. Paper can be found here. - Dabney, A. and Wakefield, J.C. (2005). Issues in the mapping of two diseases.
*Statistical Methods in Medical Research*, 14, 83-112. Paper is here. - Salway, R. and Wakefield, J.C. (2005). Sources of bias in ecological studies of non-rare events.
*Environmental and Ecological Statistics*,321-347. Paper can be found here.

- Wakefield, J., Simpson, D. and Godwin, J. (2016). Comment: Getting into Space with a Weight Problem. Discussion of, Model-based Geostatistics for Prevalence Mapping in Low-Resource Settings, by P.J. Diggle and E. Giorgi. To appear in
**Applications:**- Liang, P.S., Mayer, J.D., Wakefield, J. and C.W., Ko (2016). Temporal Trends in Geographic and Sociodemographic Disparities in Colorectal Cancer, 1973-2010. To appear in
*The Journal of Rural Health*. - Song, L., Mercer, L., Wakefield, J., Laurent, A. and Solet, D. (2016). Using Small-Area Estimation to Calculate the Prevalence of smoking by subcounty geographic areas in King County, Washington, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009-2013. To appear in
*Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research, Practice and Policy.* - Kim, A. and Wakefield, J. (2015). Bayesian Method for Cluster Detection with Application to Five Cancer Sites in Puget Sound.
*Epidemiology*, 27, 347-55. - Akullian, A., Ng'eno, E., Matheson, A.I., Macharia, D., Leonard, C., Bigogo, G., Stewart, G., Walson, J., Wakefield, J. and Montgomery, J.M. (2015). Environmental transmission of typhoid fever in an urban slum.
*PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases*, 9. Article can be found here. - Schaafsma, T., Wakefield, J., Hanisch, R., Bray, F., Schuz, J., Joy, E.J.M., Watts, M.J. and McCormack, V. (2015). Micronutrient intake and the African esphagael cancer belt - ecological insights.
*PLOS ONE*, 10. - Psoter, K.J., De Roos, A.J., Wakefield, J., Mayer, J.Di., Bryan, M., Rosenfeld, M. (2015). Association of meteorologic and geographic factors and risk of initial Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition in young children with cystic fibrosis.
*Epidemiology and Infection*. 144, 1075-83. - Akullian, A, Kohler, P., Kinuthia, J., Laserson, K., Mills, L.A., Okanda, J., Olilo, G., Ombok, M., Odhiambo, F., Rao, D., Wakefield, J. and John-Stewart, G. (2014). Geographic distribution of HIV stigma among women of childbearing age in rural Kenya.
*AIDS*, 28, 1665-1672. - Psoter, K, Rosenfeld, M., DeRoos, A.J., Mayer, J.D. and Wakefield, J. (2014). Differential geographical risk of initial Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition in young U.S. children with cystic fibrosis.
*American Journal of Epidemiology*, 179, 1503-1513. - Wang, Y., Feng, Z., Yang, Y., Self, S., Gao, Y., Longini, I.M., Wakefield, J., Zhang, J., Wang, L., Chen, C., Yao, L., Stanaway, J.D., Wang, Z. and Yang, W. (2011). Hand, foot and mouth disease in China: patterns of spread and transmissibility during 2008-2009.
*Epidemiology*, 22, 781-792. - Ross, M.E., Wakefield, J., Davis, S. and De Roos, A.J (2010). Spatial clustering of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in the Seattle-Puget sound region of Washington State.
*Cancer Causes Control*, 21, 829-838. - Elliott, P., Shaddick, G., Wakefield, J., de Hoogh, C. and Briggs, D.J. (2007). Long-term associations of outdoor air pollution with mortality in Great Britain.
*Thorax*, 62, 1088-1094. thorax2007.pdf - Gordian, M.E., Haneuse, S. and Wakefield, J. (2006). An investigation of the association between traffic exposure and the diagnosis of asthma.
*Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology*, 16, 49-55.

- Liang, P.S., Mayer, J.D., Wakefield, J. and C.W., Ko (2016). Temporal Trends in Geographic and Sociodemographic Disparities in Colorectal Cancer, 1973-2010. To appear in

- Wakefield, J. and Smith, T. (2016). Ecological modeling: general issues. In
*Handbook of Spatial Epidemiology*editors A. Lawson, S. Banerjee, R.P. Haining and M.D. Ugarte. CRC Press. - Wakefield, J. and Lyons, H. (2010). Spatial aggregation and the ecological fallacy. In
*Handbook of Spatial Statistics*editors A. Gelfand, P. Diggle, P. Guttorp, M. Fuentes, CRC Press. - Wakefield, J. (2008) Geographical disease risk. In
*Encycloperdia of Quantitative Risk Assessment and Analysis*editors E. Melnick and B. Everitt, pages 744-748, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK. - Wakefield, J. (2004). Prior and likelihood choices in the analysis of ecological data. To appear in
*Ecological Inference: New Methodological Strategies*, p. 13-50, edited by Gary King, Ori Rosen, and Martin Tanner, Cambridge University Press. main.pdf The complete book is here - Haneuse, S. and Wakefield, J. (2004). Ecological inference allowing for spatial dependence. In
*Ecological Inference: New Methodological Strategies*, p. 266-301 edited by Gary King, Ori Rosen, and Martin Tanner, Cambridge University Press. haneuse.pdf The complete book is here - Salway, R. and Wakefield, J. (2004). A comparison of approaches to ecological inference in epidemiology, political science and sociology. In
*Ecological Inference: New Methodological Strategies*, p. 303-332, edited by Gary King, Ori Rosen, and Martin Tanner, Cambridge University Press.salway.pdf The complete book is here - Elliott, P., Wakefield, J.C., Best, N.G. and Briggs, D. (2000). Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications. In
*Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications.*Elliott, P., Wakefield, J.C., Best, N.G. and Briggs, D. (editors), 3-14, Oxford University Press. - Arnold, R.A., Diamond, I. and Wakefield, J.C. (2000). The use of population denominator data in spatial epidemiology.
*Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications.*Elliott, P., Wakefield, J.C., Best, N.G. and Briggs, D. (editors), 30-50, Oxford University Press. - Elliott, P. and Wakefield, J.C. (2000). Bias and confounding in spatial epidemiology.
*Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications.*Elliott, P., Wakefield, J.C., Best, N.G. and Briggs, D. (editors), 68-84, Oxford University Press. - Wakefield, J.C., Best, N.G. and Waller, L.A. (2000). Bayesian approaches to disease mapping.
*Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications.*Elliott, P., Wakefield, J.C., Best, N.G. and Briggs, D. (editors), 104-127, Oxford University Press. - Wakefield, J.C., Kelsall, J.E. and Morris, S.E. (2000). Clustering, cluster detection, and spatial variation in risk.
*Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications.*Elliott, P., Wakefield, J.C., Best, N.G. and Briggs, D. (editors), 128-152, Oxford University Press. - Morris, S.E. and Wakefield, J.C. (2000). Assessing of disease risk in relation to a pre-specified source.
*Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications.*Elliott, P., Wakefield, J.C., Best, N.G. and Briggs, D. (editors), 152-184, Oxford University Press. - Wakefield, J. (1999). Generalized linear models in spatial epidemiology. In
*Statistical Modelling, Proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on Statistical Modelling*, p. 81-92, editors Friedl, H., Bergold, G. and Kauermann, G., IWSM. - Wakefield, J.C. and Wallace, C. (1999). Implications of estimated counts for small-area studies of environment and health. In
*Population Counts in Small Areas*, Arnold, A., Elliott, P., Wakefield, J. and Quinn, M. (editors), p. 63-73, Studies on Medical and Population Subjects, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Office for National Statistics. - Elliott, P. and Wakefield, J.C. (1999). Small-area studies of environment and health.
*Statistics for the Environment 4: Health and the Environment*, Barnett, V., Stein, A. and Turkman, K.F. (editors), p. 3-27, John Wiley, New York.

- Alaska Data (csv), Alaska Documentation(doc). A fuller description of the data can be found at: Gordian, M.E., Haneuse, S. and Wakefield, J. (2006). An investigation of the association between traffic exposure and the diagnosis of asthma.
- Asthma Data, Data Description, Illustrative analysis.
- Breast Cancer Data, Data Description, Illustrative analysis.
- Breast Cancer and Magnetic Fields Data, Data Description, Illustrative analysis.
- Fertility Data can be found here.
- Lung Cancer in Pennsylvania can be found here.
- Lung Cancer in Washington can be found here.
- Lung Cancer Mortality in Ohio can be found here.
- Pancreatic Cancer can be found here.
- Radon and Lung Cancer can be found here.
- Scottish Lip Cancer WinBUGS code and data here.
- Ecological data from Wakefield (2004). Can be found
here.

- R functions for empirical Bayes (non-spatial) smoothing and drawing Scottish polygons in R. (code)

This web site is under construction, please contact me at

if you have problems accessing or using any of the above.

Last updated: September 30th, 2016.