Psychology 345

Final Review

Last Saved:  12/5/2003 8:47 AM

Chapter 11:  Interpersonal Attraction

I.        Affiliation

A.     Affiliation and Stress

1.      Why Do People Affiliate When They Are Afraid?

2.      Gender Differences in Affiliation

B.     Social Relationships and Well-Being

1.      Understanding the Link Between Social Support and Well-Being

2.      Measuring Social Support

3.      Marriage and Mortality: What’s Good for the Goose is Even Better for the Gander

4.      Adjustment to The Dissolution of a Relationship

C.     Loneliness

II.     Interpersonal Attraction: The Psychology of Friendship

A.     Proximity: Feeling Close to Those Who Are Nearby

B.     Reciprocity

1.      Playing Hard to Get

2.      Self-Verification Theory

C.     Personal Qualities of a Likable Person

1.      Competence

2.      Attractiveness

3.      Gender Differences in Interpersonal Attraction

D.     Similarity

1.      Theoretical Explanations

2.      Similarity and Marriage

3.      Limits to the Similarity Effect

III.   The Nature of Love

A.     What is Love?

1.      Liking and Loving

2.      Different Kinds of Love

3.      What’s Love Got to Do with It?

4.      Cultural Differences in The Experience of Love

5.      The Components of Love

B.     Individual Differences in Relationship Orientations

1.      Styles of Love

2.      Romantic Love as an Attachment Bond

3.      Can Attachment Styles Change?

IV.  The Developmental Course of Romantic Relationships

A.     Falling in Love

1.      Love at First Sight

2.      The Odor of Ardor

3.      Initiating a Relationship

4.      Becoming Intimate

5.      Becoming One: Turning “You and Me” into “We”

B.     Satisfaction and Commitment

1.      Kelley and Thibaut’s Interdependence Model

2.      Investment Model of Interpersonal Relationships

3.      Equity Theory

4.      Exchange versus Communal Relationships

C.     Relationship Longevity

1.      The Trajectory of Marriage

2.      Coping With Conflict:  The Right And Wrong Ways To Argue

3.      Conflict Styles Predict Marital Longevity

4.      Attributions Predict Martial Satisfaction and Stability

5.      Commitment Promotes the Use of Relationship-Enhancing Strategies

6.      Relationship-Enhancing Behaviors Promote Commitment

7.      A General Model of Interpersonal Relationships

Chapter 12:  Helping

I.        Why Do People Help?

A.     Costs-Benefits Analysis of Helping

1.      Benefits of Helping

2.      Costs of Helping

3.      Reason Help is Needed

4.      Costs of Not Helping

B.     Evolutionary Models of Helping

1.      Theoretical Processes

2.      Tests of the Evolutionary Model

II.     Situational Influences on Helping

A.     Emotional Reactions to a Person in Need

1.      The Developmental Course of Personal Distress and Sympathy

2.      The Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis

B.     Who Do We Help?

C.     Mood States Influence Helping

1.      Happy People Help

2.      Sad People Help

3.      Helping and the Self-Image

III.   Helping in an Emergency

A.     Decision-Making Model of Emergency Intervention

1.      Stage 1:  Noticing a Potential Emergency

2.      Stage 2:  Deciding it’s an Emergency

3.      Stage 3:  Accepting Responsibility

4.      Stage 4:  Deciding How to Help

IV.  Volunteerism

A.     Who Helps?

1.      Demographic Variables

2.      Personality Variables

3.      Motives for Helping

4.      Gender Differences in Helping Behavior

5.      Cultural Differences in Helping Behavior

B.     Learning to Help

1.      Rewards and Punishments

2.      Social Learning

C.     Required Volunteerism

D.  The Volunteer Experience


Chapter 13:  Aggression

I.        The Origins of Aggression

A.     Freud’s Instinct Theory of Aggression

B.     Evolutionary Models of Aggression

1.      Lorenz’s Ethological Model of Aggression

2.      Inhibitors of Aggression

C.     Gender Differences n Aggression

1.      Biological Factors

2.      Socialization and Gender Roles

D.     Cultural Differences n Aggression

1.      Cultures of Honor

2.      A “Subculture” of Honor n the United States

E.      Learning to Aggress

II.     Acts of Aggression

A.     Provocation

B.     Cognition and Emotion

1.      Cognitive Appraisal and Anger

2.      Aggressive Thoughts and Scripts

C.     Individual Differences n Aggression: The Role of Hostility

1.      The Origins of Hostility

2.      The Stability of Hostility

D.     Situational influences on Aggression

1.      Heat and Aggression

2.      Arousal

3.      Self-Awareness and ts Absence

4.      Alcohol and Aggression

III.   Media Violence and Aggression

A.     Theoretical Reasons Why Viewing Violence Should increase Aggression

B.     Research Regarding Media Violence and Aggression

1.      Correlational Studies Regarding Media Violence and Aggression

2.      Experimental-Laboratory Studies

3.      Experimental Field Studies

4.      Summary and Conclusion

IV.  Violence Among Intimates

A.     School Violence

B.     Sexual Violence

1.      The Rape Myth

2.      Portrait of a Rapist

3.      Pornography and Sexual Violence

4.      Acquaintance Rape

5.      Domestic Violence

V.     Curbing Aggression

A.     Sociocultural Factors

B.     Punishment

1.      Capital Punishment

2.      Corporal Punishment

C.     Catharsis

1.      Direct Aggression

2.      Substitute Aggression

3.      Dramatic Catharsis

4.      Summary

D.     Aggression-Reduction Programs