Psychology 345

Review Sheet for Exam #2

Last Saved:  5/3/2003 4:54 PM

Chapter 6: Attitudes and Behavior

I.       What is an Attitude?

A.     Definitional Issues

B.     Tricomponent Model of Attitudes

C.     Measuring Attitudes

1.      Self-Report Measures

2.      Self-Report Measures in Attitude and Opinion Polls

3.      Indirect Attitude Measures

4.      Physiological Measures of Attitudes

D.     Further Issues Regarding the Nature of Attitudes

1.      Attitudes as a Bi-dimensional Concept

2.      Attitude Strength and Attitude Importance

II.     Origins of Attitudes

A.     Emotional Theories of Attitude Formation

1.      Learning Theory Accounts of Attitude Formation

2.      Mere Exposure Effects

3.      Subliminal Perception and Attitude Formation

B.     Cognitive Theories of Attitude Formation

1.      Key Features of the Cognitive Approach

2.      Does It Matter Whether Attitudes Are Based On Affect Or Beliefs?

C.     Behaviorally-Based Attitudes

D.     Genetically-Based Attitudes

III.  Cognitive Consequences of Attitudes

A.     Biased Assimilation Effects

B.     Hostile Media Bias

C.     Minimizing Biased Assimilation Processes

IV.  Attitudes and Behavior

A.     Early Investigations of the Attitude-Behavior Relation

B.     Situational Factors that Influence When Attitudes Predict Behavior

1.      Matching Levels of Specificity

2.      Aggregating Across Behaviors

C.     Which Attitudes Predict Behavior?

1.      Attitude Strength and Attitude Importance

2.      Attitude Accessibility

D.     Attitudes Predict Behavior in Some People More than in Others

E.      Theory of Reasoned Action

1.      The Theory of Planned Behavior

2.      Unintended Behavior

V.    From Behavior to Attitudes:  Cognitive Dissonance Theory

A.     Theoretical Assumptions

1.      Cognitive Inconsistency Creates Cognitive Dissonance

2.      Three Ways to Reduce Dissonance

B.     Historical Perspective

C.     Illustrative Research

1.      Attitude Change Following Attitude-Discrepant Behavior

2.      Effort Justification and Attitude Change

3.      Hypocrisy and Behavior Change

4.      Post Decision Dissonance Reduction

D.     Boundary Conditions

E.      Self-Perception Theory: A Counter Explanation

1.      Applying Self-Perception Theory

2.      Comparing the Two Theories

3.      Critical Research

F.      What Creates Arousal?

1.      Festinger:  Cognitive Inconsistency Creates Arousal

2.      Aronson:  Inconsistency with The Self-Image Creates Arousal

3.      Schlenker:  The Public Appearance of Inconsistency Creates Arousal

4.      Cooper and Fazio:  Foreseeable Negative Consequences Create Arousal

5.      Steele:  Self-Image Threat Creates Arousal


Chapter 7:  Persuasion

I.       The Yale Communication and Attitude Program

A.     Theoretical Assumptions

1.      Three stage model of message learning

2.      Three-step model of attitude acquisition

3.      Types of Incentives

B.     Empirical Findings

1.      Source Characteristics

2.      Message Characteristics

3.      Audience Characteristics

C.     The Legacy of the Yale Project

II.     Perceptual/Cognitive Models of Attitude Change

A.     Asch’s Models of Attitude Change

B.     Social Judgment Theory

1.      Latitudes of Acceptance and Rejection

2.      Factors that Determine Latitude Width

3.      Discrepant Communications and the Dynamics of Attitude Change

C.     Self-Generated Attitude Change

1.      Resistance to Persuasion

D.     Cognitive Response Theory

1.      Theoretical Assumptions

2.      Thought-Listing Technique

III.  Dual Process Models

A.     Theoretical Assumptions

1.      Two Routes To Attitude Change

2.      Factors that Determine Which Route is Taken: Motivation and Ability

3.      Consequences of Which Route is Taken

B.     Empirical Research

1.      Involvement Moderates The Effects of Argument Quality and Argument Quantity

2.      Distraction Moderates the Effects of Argument Quality

3.      Mood and Persuasion

4.      Individual Differences:  Need For Cognition


Chapter 8:  Social Influence

I.       Imitation

A.     Social Norms

B.     Modeling and Imitation

C.     The Power of Positive Models

II.     Conformity in Small Groups

A.     Sherif’s Experiment: Conformity in an Ambiguous Situation

B.     Asch’s Experiment:  Conformity in an Unambiguous Situation

1.      The Experimental Procedure

2.      Possible Confounds and Limiting Conditions

3.      Contextual Variables that Influence Conformity

C.     Conformity and Group Decision-Making

1.      Communication Patterns in Small Groups

2.      Group Polarization Effects

3.      Groupthink

D.     Minority Influence

1.      What Makes A Minority Effective?

2.      Do Majority and Minority Influence Operate Through the Same Process?

III.  Compliance

A.     Compliance Without Thought

1.      The Power of Scripts

2.      Liking and Compliance

B.     Principles of Social Influence

1.      Contrast Effects

2.      Scarcity

3.      Psychological Consistency and the Power of Commitment

4.      The Norm of Reciprocity

C.     Two-Step Influence Techniques

1.      The Foot-In-The Door Effect

2.      Low-Balling

3.      The Door-In-The Face Effect

4.      The “That’s-Not-All” Effect

IV.  Obedience to Authority

A.     Mindless Obedience

B.     Milgram’s Research

1.      Experimental Procedure

2.      Experimental Findings

3.      Contextual Variables That Influence Obedience

4.      Controversial Issues Surrounding Milgram’s Research


Chapter 9: Groups

I.       The Nature of Groups

A.     What is a Group?

B.     Why Join a Group?

1.      Functions of Groups

2.      Sex Differences in The Motivation to Join Groups

C.     Steps To Joining A Group

D.     Roles and Norms

II.     Individual Performance in a Group Setting

A.     Social Facilitation

1.      The Effects of Task Difficulty

2.      What Produces Arousal?

B.     Social Loafing

1.      What Causes Social Loafing?

2.      Social Compensation

3.      Individual Differences in Social Loafing

C.     Integrating Social Facilitation Research and Social Loafing

III.  Evaluating Group Performance

A.     Task Type

B.     Brainstorming

C.     Information Exchange in Group Settings

IV.  Leadership

A.     The Emergence of Leadership: Who Shall Lead?

1.      Implicit Theories of Leadership

2.      Demographic Variables That Predict Leadership Emergence

B.     Leadership Effectiveness:  What Makes a Leader Great?

1.      Natural Born Leaders:  The Great Person Theory

2.      Situational Theories of Leadership

3.      Interactional Models of Leadership

4.      Transactional Leadership

C.     Gender Differences in Leadership Style and Effectiveness

V.    Group Conflict

A.     Social Dilemmas

1.      Two Types of Social Dilemmas

2.      Resolving Social Dilemmas

B.     Mixed Motives Dilemmas

1.      The Prisoner’s Dilemma

2.      Resolving the Prisoner’s Dilemma

3.      GRIT

C.     Bargaining and Negotiation

1.      Fixed Pie Perception in Negotiation

2.      Suspicion, Mistrust, and the Reactive Devaluation Effect

3.      Group Negotiations


Chapter 10: Prejudice

I.       The Nature of Prejudice

A.     Definitional Issues

B.     The Changing Face of Prejudice

C.     Measuring Prejudice

1.      The Modern Racism Scale

2.      Implicit Attitudes

3.      Behavioral Measure of Prejudice and Discrimination

4.      Relation Between Different Measures of Prejudice

II.     Origins of Prejudice

A.     Realistic Group Conflict Theory

1.      Supporting Evidence:  The Robbers Cave Experiment

2.      Evidence that Actual Conflict Need Not be Present in Order for Prejudice to Occur

B.     Motivational Models

1.      Social Identity Theory

2.      Prejudice as Self-Enhancement

3.      Prejudice and the Denial of Death

C.     Social Learning

D.     Personality Approaches

III.  Stereotypes and Prejudice

A.     The Nature of Stereotypes

1.      Outgroup Homogeneity Bias

2.      The Outgroup Extremity Effect

B.     A Cognitive Model of Stereotype Formation

1.      The Role of Categorization in Stereotype Formation

2.      Cognitive Consequences of Stereotypes

C.     Stereotype Activation, Application, and Control

1.      Devine’s Activation-Application Model

2.      Suppression of Stereotypes

D.     Stereotypes and Sexism

1.      Two Types of Sexism: Hostile Sexism and Benevolent Sexism

2.      Prejudice, Gender Roles, and Gender Stereotypes

IV.  Coping with Prejudice

A.     Test Performance in Achievement Settings: The Role of Stereotype Threat

1.      Who’s Susceptible to Stereotype Threat?

2.      Stereotype Threat Among Women

B.     Disidentification and Disengagement

C.     Affirmative Action Programs

V.    Reducing Prejudice

A.     Cognitive Models of Prejudice Reduction

B.     Behavioral Models of Prejudice Reduction

1.      Desegregation and the Contact Hypothesis

2.      Four Conditions Needed for Contact to Reduce Prejudice

C.     The Jigsaw Classroom

D.     Integrated Sports Teams