Social Psychology 345

Midterm 1 Review Sheet

Chapter 1:   Introduction to Social Psychology

I.       What is Social Psychology?

A.     Principal Assumptions

1.      Subjective Interpretations Guide Behavior

2.      Personality and Situational Variables Guide Interpretations

B.     Comparing Social Psychology with Other Academic Disciplines

1.      Level of Analysis

a.      Anthropologist focus on cultural factors

b.      Sociologists focus on broad scale social forces

c.      Personality psychologists focus on a person’s traits

d.      Social Psychologists focus on the immediate situation

2.      Methodological Approach

a.      Other social sciences use correlational research

b.      Social Psychologists use the experimental method

3.      Topics in Social Psychology

II.     The Nature of Science

A.     What Is Science?

1.      Ways of Knowing

a.      Dogmatism

b.      Rationalism

c.      Empiricism [and Positivism]

d.      Science [Logical Positivism]

2.      Functions of Science

a.      Description

b.      Prediction

c.      Explanation

d.      Control

3.      Two Types of Scientific Research and their Immediate Aims

a.      Basic Research – to understand a phenomenon

b.      Applied Research – to solve a problem

B.     The Scientific Process

1.      Hypothesis Generation

a.      The Role of Theories

b.      Evaluating Theories

i.                    Parsimony

ii.                   Breadth

iii.                 Generativity

c.      The Relation Between Theories and Hypotheses

i.                    Deductive Logic – from the general to the specific

ii.                   Inductive Logic – from the specific to the general

C.     Types of Research

1.      Correlational Research

a.      How it’s done

b.      What functions of science can it fulfill?

i.                    Description

ii.                   Prediction

c.      Know 3 explanations for any observed correlation

i.                    The Causal Hypothesis  (XàY)

ii.                   The Reverse Causation Hypothesis  (YàX)

iii.                 The Third Variable Problem

2.      Experimental Research

a.      Why is it needed?

b.      What are its essential features?

i.                    Experimental Control

ii.                   Random Assignment to Conditions

D.     Where We Conduct Research

1.      Lab

2.      Field

3.      Advantages and Disadvantages of Each

E.      Evaluating Scientific Research

1.      Internal Validity

a.      Define it

b.      What factors threaten internal validity

i.                    Demand Characteristics

ii.                   Evaluation Apprehension

iii.                 Experimenter Expectancy Effects

c.      Know why random assignment is important

2.      External Validity

a.      Define it

b.      Know how random sampling affects it

3.      When External Validity Is (and Isn’t) Important

F.      Interpreting Scientific Research

1.      Understanding statistical significance

2.      What mean differences mean

3.      Factorial designs, main effects, and interactions


Chapter 2:   Social Psychology’s Theoretical Roots

I.       The Birth of Psychology

A.     Philosophical Roots

1.      John Locke and the Origin of Knowledge

2.      Associationism

3.      Introspectionism

4.      Theoretical Responses to Introspection

B.     Gestalt Psychology

1.      Main Assumptions

2.      Extensions and Implications

C.     Freudian Theory

1.      The Theory in Context

2.      Theoretical Constructs

3.      Freud’s Influence on Social Psychological Research

D.     Behaviorism

1.      Key Assumptions

a.      Positivism

b.      Mechanism

2.      Mechanisms of Learning

a.      Learning by association (classical conditioning)

b.      Learning following reinforcement (instrumental conditioning)

c.      Learning through observation (social learning)

3.      Hull’s Drive-Reduction Model of Behavior

E.      Tolman’s Cognitive Behaviorism

1.      Key Assumptions

2.      Tolman’s Legacy

F.      Lewin’s Field Theory

1.      The Nature of Behavior

2.      Field Theory: Theoretical Constructs

3.      Illustrative Research

G.     Comparing The Theories

II.     Four Perspectives on Social Behavior

A.     Evolutionary Psychology

B.     The Sociocultural Perspective

C.     Personality and Social Behavior

D.     The Cognitive Perspective


Chapter 3:  Social Perception

I.       First Impressions   

A.     Consensus in First Impressions

B.     Factors That Influence First Impressions

II.     Inferring Personality from Facial Features

A.     Facial Attractiveness

1.      The “What Is Beautiful Is Good” Stereotype

2.      Innate Preference For Attractive Faces

3.      What Makes A Pretty Face?

4.      Why Do People Prefer Attractive Faces?

B.     Facial Babyishness

1.      The Psychological Correlates of a Babyface

2.      Cross-Cultural and Interracial Agreement

3.      Social Consequences of a Baby Face

4.      Do Baby-Faced People Possess Childlike Personality Traits?

C.     Emotional Expressions in the Human Face

1.      Universal Recognition of Facial Expressions of Emotion

2.      Facial Recognition of Emotion in Early Infancy

3.      The Physical Components of Anger          

III.  Nonverbal Behavior

A.     Cultural Differences in Nonverbal Communication

B.     Sex Differences in Nonverbal Behavior

1.      Sex Differences and Social Status

2.      Sex Differences and Socialization Factors

C.     Accuracy in Reading and Sending Nonverbal Messages

1.      The Ability to Read Nonverbal Messages

2.      The Ability to Send Nonverbal Messages

3.      Relative Contribution of Sending and Receiving

D.     Detecting Deception

1.      How Successful Are People At Detecting Deception?

2.      Individual Differences in the Ability to Detect Deception

3.      Why Are People Unable to Detect Deception?

E.      Nonverbal Leakage

F.      Distinguishing Genuine Smiles of Enjoyment from Feigned Ones

G.     Polygraph Tests

IV.  The Cognitive Bases of First Impressions

A.     Cognitive Effects of Schemas

1.      Schemas Guide Attention

2.      Schemas Aid Understanding

3.      Schemas Aid Memory

B.     Schema Activation

C.     Overcoming Priming Effects

V.    Behavioral Consequences of First Impressions

A.     A Four Stage Model of the Behavioral Confirmation Process

1.      Empirical Research

a.      Experimental Demonstrations of Behavioral Confirmation Effects

b.      Teacher Expectancies and Student Performance

B.     Breaking The Behavioral Confirmation Cycle

1.      Interaction Goals of the Expectancy Holder

2.      Behavior of the Target of the Expectancy


Chapter 4:  Social Inference

I.       Forming Complete Impressions

A.     Elemental Models

1.      The Additive Model

2.      The Averaging Model

3.      The Weighted Averaging Model

B.     Asch’s Change of Meaning Effect

1.      How is it related to Gestalt Psychology

2.      How does it explain Primacy Effects

3.      What are central traits

4.      How do people reconcile inconsistent information

II.     Causal Attributions

A.     The History of Attribution Theory

1.      The Naïve Scientist Metaphor

2.      Dispositional vs. Situational Attributions

a.      Disposition attributions refer to a person’s enduring character, ability, or personality.

b.      Situational attributions are any attribution that isn’t a dispositional one.

3.      Factors that Influence Attributions

B.     Theories of the Attribution Process

1.      Kelley’s Covariation Model

a.      Three sources of information

i.                    Consensus

ii.                   Distinctiveness

iii.                 consistency

2.      Correspondent Inference Theory

a.      Three variables of interest

i.                    Choice

ii.                   Social desirability

iii.                 Intended consequences

b.      Discounting and Augmenting

C.     Correspondence Bias (aka Fundamental Attribution Error)

1.      A Sequential Model of the Attribution Process

2.      Empirical support for the sequential model

3.      Qualifications to the FAE

a.      Ulterior Motives

b.      Actor-Observer Effect

c.      Self-Serving Bias

4.      A Critical Look at the FAE

III.  Judgment and Decision-Making

A.     Cognitive Heuristics    

1.      The Representativeness Heuristic

2.      Availability Heuristic

3.      The Simulation Heuristic

4.      Anchoring and Adjustment

B.     Judgmental Errors and Biases

1.      Violations of Appropriate Statistical Principles

a.      Insensitivity to regression effects

b.      Covariation and correlation

c.      Illusion of Control

2.      Choosing a Course of Action

a.      Risk aversion

b.      Framing effects

3.      Biases in Explaining Events

a.      Hindsight bias

b.      Imagined outcomes

c.      Belief Perseverance


Chapter 5:  The Self

I.       The Nature of the Self

A.     The Origins of Self-Awareness

1.      Visual Self-Recognition in Nonhumans

2.      Visual Self-Recognition in Infants  

B.     Components of the Self-Concept

1.      Material Self

2.      Social Self 

3.      Spiritual Self

C.     Identity Accessibility

1.      Social Context      

2.      Social Context and Self-Evaluation

II.     Sources of Self-Knowledge

A.     Physical World

B.     Social World

1.      Social Comparison Processes

2.            Reflected Appraisals

C.     Psychological World

1.      Introspection

2.      Self-Perception Processes

III.  Do People Know What they Are Really Like?

A.     The Self is Too Good to be True

1.      The “Better than Most” Effect

2.      Unrealistic Optimism

B.     How Do People Maintain Positive Self-Views?

1.      Selective Exposure To Favorable Feedback

2.      Biased Social Comparison

3.      Cognitive Factors That Promote Positive Self-Views

4.      Self-handicapping

C.     Are Positive Self-Evaluations a Benefit or a Liability?

IV.  The Self in Action

A.     Cognitive Consequences of Self-Knowledge

B.     Motivational Processes

1.      Self-Efficacy Beliefs

2.      Self-Awareness

3.      Exercising Self-Control

C.     Self-Presentation

1.      Why Do People Engage in Self-Presentation?

2.      Individual Differences in Self-Presentation

V.    Self-Esteem

A.     What is Self-Esteem?

1.      Global Self-Esteem

2.      Feelings of Self-Worth

3.      Self-Evaluations

B.     Measuring Self-Esteem

1.      Self-Report Measures

2.      Problems With Self-Report Measures

C.     Where Does Self-Esteem Come From?

D.     What is Self-Esteem Good For?