Psychology 101

Review Sheet for Exam #3

Table of Contents

  • Lecture 27
  • Lecture 28
  • Lecture 29
  • Lecture 30
  • Chapter 13
  • Lecture 31
  • Lecture 32
  • Lecture 33
  • Lecture 34
  • Chapter 17
  • Lecture 35
  • Lecture 36
  • Lecture 37
  • Chapter 15
  • Lecture 38
  • Lecture 39
  • Chapter 16
  • Names to Know

  • Lecture 27


    1. Personality
      1. Definition
      2. Levels of Analysis
    2. Traits
      1. Definition
      2. Importance
      3. Five Factor Model
      4. Trait Stability
    3. Behavioral Genetics
      1. Modeling Variability
      2. Assessment Techniques
      3. Typical Correlations
      4. Understanding What's Inherited


    It has been said that every person is "like all other people, some other people, and no other person." Personality psychology studies these similarities and differences.

    Traits represent the fundamental unit of personality. Thousands of traits have been distinguished, but many contemporary psychologists believe these traits represent five broad dimensions of personality.

    Behavioral geneticists study how genetic and environmental factors influence personality. Most traits show a strong genetic component, with environmental factors (and error) accounting for the remaining variance.


    Lecture 28

    Freud 1

    1. Historical Context
      1. Victorian Era
      2. Theory's Breadth
      3. Freud's Influence
      4. Critique
      5. Sources of Controversy
    2. Psychoanalytic Theory
      1. Overview
      2. Personality
      3. Structure of the Mind
    3. Structure of Personality
      1. Id
      2. Ego
      3. Superego


    Sigmund Freud was an Austrian physician who transformed the field of psychology from the study of sensation, perception, and learning to the study of psychological functioning (and dysfunction). Freud also transformed the way ordinary people think about psychological phenomena (particularly sexual drives and the role of the unconscious) and, along with Marx and Einstein, is considered one of the most significant theorists of the 20th century.

    Although Freud's influence has been vast, his theory and methods have been subject to a great deal of criticism. Many of these criticisms are fair by today's standards, but they are less compelling when the theory is judged in the context in which it was developed.

    At its core, psychoanalytic theory is a theory of psychological conflict among primitive, animalistic desires, and the need to accommodate these desires to environmental realities and moral imperatives. These competing elements exist within different regions of the mind, and the way people manage this conflict comprises their personality.


    Lecture 29

    Freud 2

    1. Ego Strength
      1. Balance and Anxiety
      2. Traits associated with an ineffectual ego
      3. Traits associated with an ineffectual superego
    2. Personality Development
      1. Psychosexual Stages
      2. Oedipus Complex
      3. Superego Development
      4. Sex Differences


    The Id is a constant force, but people vary with respect to the power and effectiveness of their ego and superego, with particular traits associated with particular strengths and deficiencies.

    In addition to providing a theory of personality structure and functioning, Freud also offered a theory of personality development. This aspect of the theory is highly controversial. Freud believed that people start out capable of deriving sexual (sensory) pleasure from any part of the body and come, through socialization, to derive sexual (sensory) pleasure from intercourse with a member of the opposite sex. According to Freud, this transformation occurs as people move through five psychosexual stages of development.


    Lecture 30

    Identity and Attachment

    1. Attachment
      1. Harlow
      2. Bowlby
      3. Strange Situation
      4. Attachment Styles
    2. Erikson Erikson
      1. Biography
      2. 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
      3. Adolescent Identity Crisis


    Freud argued that early childhood experiences shape personality development. In this lecture, we discussed two other research areas that share this perspective: Attachment theory and Erikson's model of psychosocial development. Attachment theory contends that the bond we form with our primary caregivers during the first year of life affects the trust and security we experience with others throughout life. Erikson's model echoes this belief, also emphasizing that personality continues to develop as individuals confront and master age-appropriate life tasks.


    Chapter 13


    1. How do neoanalytic and object relations theories depart from and build on Freudian theory?
    2. What is meant by object relations? Describe three adult attachment styles.
    3. What are personal constructs, and how do they account for personality differences?
    4. Describe the roles of self-consistency, congruence, threat, and conditions of worth in Rogers's self theory.
    5. How does self-esteem develop? Describe the roles of self-verification and self-enhancement as motivational forces.
    6. What biological factors underlie Eysenck's dimensions of Extraversion and Stability?
    7. What are the major temperament factors? What underlies the inhibited behavior pattern?
    8. Describe the major features of social-cognitive theories and the importance of reciprocal determinism.
    9. How does the concept of behavioral signatures help reconcile the seeming paradox of personality coherence and behavioral inconsistency?
    10. How do projective tests differ from objective measures? Describe and compare the Rorschach and the TAT.
    11. How useful is criminal profiling?

    Lecture 31

    Social 1

    1. Social Psychology
      1. Definition
      2. Principal Principles
    2. First Impressions
      1. Primacy Effects
      2. Behavioral Confirmation Effects
      3. Attractiveness
    3. Causal Attributions
      1. Definition
      2. Why why matters
      3. Heider's Theory


    Social psychology is the scientific study of social life. The field is very broad and covers virtually all behaviors of an interpersonal nature, from altruism to violence. In this lecture I introduced the field, noting that social psychologists believe a person's behavior depends on what seems to be, rather than what is. Formally, this assumption is known as a phenomenological perspective. We then discussed two central topics in the field: (a) The process by which we form a first impression of a person and (b) the process by which we decide why people behave the way they do.


    Lecture 32

    Social 2

    1. Fundamental Attribution Error
      1. Definition
      2. Qualifications
    2. Attitudes
      1. Definition
      2. Three Components
      3. Attitude Formation
    3. Cognitive Dissonance Theory
      1. Main Assumptions
      2. Representative Research


    When explaining behavior, people tend to assume that dispositional causes are more important than situational ones. This tendency is known as the fundamental attribution error.

    Attitudes are evaluative reactions to people, objects, or issues. They are made up of three components that usually fit together in a psychologically balanced way. As a result, attitudes can be formed in a variety of ways.

    People do not always act in accordance with their beliefs and feelings, however. According to Leon Festinger, these discrepancies create an aversive motivational state called cognitive dissonance. People resolve dissonance in one of three ways, choosing the easiest option.


    Lecture 33

    Social 3

    1. Prejudice
      1. Defined
      2. Modern Prejudice
      3. Sources of Prejudice
      4. Reducing Prejudice
    2. Aggression
      1. Definition
      2. Origins
      3. Media Violence and Aggression


    Prejudice is an attitude toward a group and its members. By definition, prejudice involves making overgeneralizations. Instead of treating people as individuals, we treat them as (interchangeable) group members, glossing over or ignoring their differences.

    Prejudice has declined in the last 60 years; people's attitudes toward prejudice itself have changed as well, with most people believing it is wrong to be narrow-minded. Despite these advances, prejudice still exists, manifesting itself in more subtle and covert ways than in days gone by. Modern prejudice (as it is known) reveals itself when people are not monitoring their actions or can justify, excuse, or rationalize their bigotry.

    Intergroup contact can reduce prejudice, provided four conditions are met. These conditions do not eliminate prejudice, but they do lead to improvements.

    Within social psychology, aggression is a voluntary behavior intended to hurt another person. There are many different theories about the origins of aggression, but they fall into two camps: Those who argue that aggression is innate (i.e., part of human nature), and those who argue that it is either learned or the result of biological mistakes (i.e., a tumor or damage to some area of the brain).

    Many psychologists believe that media violence promotes aggression, but the research on this point is inconclusive. The ready availability of guns and a culture that promotes their use are more likely causes of violence.


    Lecture 34

    Social 4

    1. Milgram's Study of Obedience
      1. Milgram's Background
      2. Experimental Procedures
      3. Experimental Findings
      4. Milgram's Interpretation
      5. My Interpretation


    Stanley Milgram conducted social psychology's best known experiment. The study revealed an alarming tendency for ordinary people to commit violence under the shroud of legitimacy. Whether these findings are due to obedience or aggression is debatable, but either way they provide a disturbing view of human nature and an exceptionally vivid testament to the power of the experimental situation Milgram created.


    Chapter 17

    Social Psychology

    1. Describe how communicator, message, and audience characteristics affect the persuasion process
    2. Describe situational factors that influence conformity to the group. When will minority influence be strongest?
    3. Identify four common compliance techniques and explain how they work.
    4. Describe social loafing, social compensation, and the causes and consequences of group polarization and groupthink.
    5. Describe deindividuation, its main cause, and how conditions in the Stanford prison study may have fostered it.
    6. Discuss how proximity, mere exposure, similarity, and beauty influence initial attraction.
    7. Based on social exchange theory, what factors determine whether a relationship will be satisfying and will continue?
    8. Contrast evolutionary and sociocultural explanations for sex differences in mate preferences.
    9. How is implicit prejudice measured? Describe cognitive and motivational roots of prejudice.
    10. How do self-fulfilling prophecies and stereotype threat perpetuate prejudice? How can prejudice be reduced?
    11. Discuss evolutionary, social learning, and empathy-altruism explanations for helping behavior.

    Lecture 35

    Clinical 1

    1. Clinical Psychology
      1. Definition
      2. Symptoms & Syndromes
      3. Criteria
      4. Prevalence
    2. Origins
      1. Historical
      2. Contemporary
      3. Vulnerability-Stress Model
      4. Cultural Considerations
    3. Classifications
      1. Why classify
      2. DSM-IV-TR
      3. Multi-Axial Classification
      4. Major Disorders
      5. Comorbidity
      6. Labeling Liabilities


    Most people think of psychology as the study of psychological disorders, yet only one area of psychology, clinical psychology, focuses on the study of psychopathology. In this lecture, I introduced the field of clinical psychology, emphasizing the classification and description of psychological disorders.


    Lecture 36

    Clinical 2

    1. Anxiety
      1. Syndrome
      2. Prevalence
      3. Varieties
      4. Origins
    2. Mood Disorders
      1. Depression
      2. Syndrome
      3. Bipolar
      4. Course
      5. Prevalence
      6. Origins


    Anxiety and mood disorders are the most common forms of psychological distress. In this lecture, we reviewed their nature, subtypes, and origins.


    Lecture 37

    Clinical 3

    1. Schizophrenia
      1. Distortions
      2. Subtypes
      3. Symptom Categories
      4. Prognosis and Prevalence
      5. Heritability
      6. Origins
    2. Personality Disorders
      1. Defined
      2. Antisocial Personality Disorder
      3. Borderline Personality Disorder


    Schizophrenia is a severe psychological disorder, characterized by deficits in five areas of functioning. Although it is relatively rare, many people diagnosed with schizophrenia require hospitalization and never fully recover.

    Personality disorders, which affect ~12% of the population, are chronic deficits in social and behavioral functioning. These disorders fall into three clusters.


  • Identify five areas of disturbance in schizophrenia, and distinguish positive and negative symptoms.
  • Identify four subtypes
  • Be familiar with genetic, biological and sociocultural causes of schizophrenia
  • Define personality disorders and be familiar with three clusters for organizing the 10 types. [You don't need to know all 10 types, just the three clusters.]
  • Be familiar with the main symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder, and their possible origins and developmental course.

  • Chapter 15

    1. Describe three kinds of somatoform disorders. What causal factors might be involved?
    2. What is the central feature of dissociative disorders? Describe the three major dissociative disorders.
    3. How are sociocultural factors related to prevalence, manifestations, and sex differences in depression?
    4. What are the major motives and risk factors for suicide? Describe four guidelines for helping a suicidal person.
    5. Describe the major characteristics of the antisocial personality disorder.
    6. How do biological, psychoanalytic, and behavioral theorists account for antisocial personality disorder?
    7. How might the brain differences between successful and unsuccessful psychopaths relate to their behavior?
    8. Describe the major features of BPD and the hypothesized causes of the disorder.
    9. Describe the major features and causal factors in ADHD and autistic disorder, as well as implications for adult functioning.

    Lecture 38

    Therapy 1

    1. Psychotherapy
      1. Definition
      2. Psychotherapists
      3. Major Approaches
    2. Behavior Therapies
      1. Exposure Therapy
      2. Systematic Desensitization
      3. Aversion Therapies
      4. Behavior Modification
      5. Token Economy
    3. Psychopharmacology
      1. Varieties
      2. Criticisms
    4. Integrative Eclecticism
      1. Dialectical Behavior Therapy


    Most psychologists are involved with the treatment of psychological distress. Although there are several approaches to psychotherapy, none has proven universally more effective than another. Instead, each approach is effective in treating certain disorders, with some approaches being broader than others. For this reason, most therapists draw on a range of theoretical perspectives when treating clients.


    Lecture 39

    Therapy 2

    1. Psychoanalysis
      1. Techniques
      2. Contemporary Psychoanalysis
    2. Humanistic Therapies
      1. Assumptions
      2. Rogerian Psychotherapy
    3. Evaluating Psychotherapies
      1. Empirical Findings
      2. Commonalities


    For many years, the terms "psychotherapy" and "psychoanalysis" were synonymous, as Freud's theory was the major approach to treating psychological disorders. This is much less true today, in part because Freud's approach is time-consuming and costly. In this lecture, we discussed his approach, and reviewed newer approaches, including humanistic therapies.


    Chapter 16

    1. How is mindfulness training being utilized in MBSR, MDRP, ACT, and DBT?
    2. What principles underlie family and marital therapy? What is the importance of acceptance in marital therapy?
    3. What barriers to therapy exist for ethnic minorities? What characteristics are found in culturally competent and gender-sensitive therapists?
    4. How do antianxiety drugs work, and how effective are they? Do they have any drawbacks?
    5. How do antidepressant drugs achieve their effects? What concerns have been raised about them?
    6. Which disorders do and do not respond favorably to ECT and psychosurgery? What are their drawbacks?
    7. What is the rationale for deinstitutionalization? What prevents the achievement of its goals?
    8. What therapeutic issues exist in managed-care environments?
    9. Describe two major approaches to prevention, and provide an example of each.

    Names to Know

    1. Ainsworth, Mary
    2. Asch, Solomon
    3. Beck, Aaron
    4. Bowlby, John
    5. Darley & Latané
    6. Ellis, Albert
    7. Erikson, Erik
    8. Festinger, Leon
    9. Freud, Sigmund
    10. Harlow, Harry
    11. Heider, Fritz
    12. Linehan, Marsha
    13. Milgram, Stanley
    14. Rogers, Carl
    15. Taylor, Shelley