Psychology 101

Review Sheet for Exam #1


Table of Contents

  • Lecture 01
  • Lecture 02
  • Chapter 01
  • Lecture 03
  • Chapter 02
  • Lecture 04
  • Lecture 05
  • Lecture 06
  • Lecture 07
  • Lecture 08
  • Lecture 09
  • Chapter 04
  • Lecture 10
  • Lecture 11
  • Chapter 03
  • Lecture 12
  • Lecture 13
  • Chapter 05
  • Names to Know

  • Lecture 01

    Introduction

    1. Course Syllabus
      1. Course Content
      2. Grading
      3. Resources
      4. Etiquette
    2. What is Psychology?
      1. Scientific study of mind, brain, & behavior
      2. Careers in Psychology
      3. Academic Psychology
    3. Pseudopsychologies

    Overview

    In this introductory lecture, I tried to convey a sense of psychology's breadth. All topics that concern human behavior and functioning (e.g., dreams, jealousy, tickling, and war) interest psychologists. I also wanted you to be aware that although there are many different kinds of psychologists, our focus will be on research generated and reported by academic psychologists (and scientists in related fields). Within academia, psychology sits at the center of the biological and social sciences, and the humanities. Not all psychological phenomena can be understood from these various perspectives, but many can. Finally, I wanted you to be aware of the assumptions that guide contemporary psychological research within academic psychology, and be familiar with the common divisions that organize psychology departments.


    Specifics


    Careers

    CareerDescription
    Psychotherapist 

    Clinical

     

    Counseling

     

    Psychiatry

     
    Business 
    Academic 


    Academic Areas

    AreaDescription

    Biological

     

    Clinical

     

    Cognitive

     

    Developmental

     

    Personality

     

    Social

     

    Lecture 02

    History of Psychology

    1. Psychology and Philosophy
      1. Mind-Body Problem
        1. Are body and mind identical or distinct?
        2. Is behavior reflexive and determined or freely chosen and willed?
      2. Origins of Knowledge
        1. Nativism vs. Empiricism
        2. Associationism
    2. Early Psychological Theories
      1. Structuralism
      2. Functionalism
      3. Gestalt Psychology
      4. Freud
      5. Behaviorism
    3. Contemporary Perspectives
      1. Biological
      2. Cognitive
      3. Humanism
      4. Sociocultural

    Overview

    Many people assume that psychology is primarily about the "diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems," but this topic was not part of the field when it began. Instead, psychology developed from the field of philosophy, and two philosophical issues were of particular importance to early psychologists: (1) The mind-body problem concerns two questions: To what extent is the mind separate from the brain and is behavior reflexive or subject to free will? (2) The second issue concerns the origins of knowledge. Here philosophers have disagreed about the degree to which all knowledge is acquired through the senses or whether some knowledge is innate, present at birth. Following Locke's assertion that "there is nothing in the intellect that is not first in the sense," early psychologists set about trying to identify the basic elements of psychological experience. Several schools of thought arose to address this issue, each adopting a particular perspective. Although the issues themselves are still debated and researched within the field, psychological research is now influenced by broader perspectives that make assumptions about human nature.


    Specifics

    • Be familiar with four positions regarding the "mind-body" problem.
    • Distinguish two approaches to the origins of knowledge, and explain how, according to the empiricists, people can have thoughts of things never seen (e.g., a purple cow with wings).
    • Identify the central assumptions made by each of the five early schools of psychology.
    • Know four contemporary perspectives and the assumptions they make about human nature.

    Mind-Body Problem

    Position

    Are body and mind identical or distinct?

    Is behavior reflexive or is there free will?

    Strict Dualism  
    Cartesian Interactionism  
    Willful Materialism  
    Absolute Materialism  


    Early Psychological Theories


    Theory

    Description

    Guiding Assumption

    Structuralism  
    Functionalism  
    Gestalt Psychology  
    Freud  
    Behaviorism  


    Contemporary Perspectives


    Perspective

    Guiding Metaphor

    Biological 
    Cognitive 
    Humanism 
    Sociocultural 

    Chapter 01

    The chapter reviews that appear on the review sheets come from the study guide that accompanies your text. The topics represent the learning goals associated with each chapter. You should use them as a guide when you study your book.

    • Define "psychology" and identify some of its major subfields.
    • Describe how psychology uses a scientific approach to avoid generating misconceptions about behavior that can arise in everyday life.
    • What does critical thinking involve and why is it important?
    • Discuss the scientific evidence examining the validity of the advice to "Stick with your first instinct" when taking tests.
    • Identify four major goals of psychology, and describe how basic and applied research differ.
    • What three general levels of analysis do psychologists use to study behavior?
    • Discuss psychology's philosophical and scientific roots, earliest schools of thought, and founders.
    • Describe the psychodynamic perspective. Contrast Freud's psychoanalytic theory with modern psychodynamic theories.
    • What are the behavioral perspective's origins and focus? Contrast radical behaviorism with cognitive behaviorism.
    • Discuss humanism's conception of human nature?
    • Describe the cognitive perspective and some areas of modern cognitive science.
    • Describe the two main components of the sociocultural perspective, and how the Research Close-Up illustrates cultural psychology's goals and importance?
    • Describe the biological perspective and the goals of behavioral neuroscience, behavior genetics, and evolutionary psychology.
    • Integrate psychology's perspectives within a 3-level framework. Use this framework to discuss causes of depression.
    • Discuss the five major themes identified in this chapter and provide an example of each.
    • Describe two of psychology's major professional organizations.
    • Beyond providing therapy, discuss some ways that psychologists contribute to societal welfare.
    • Identify scientifically based strategies that can enhance students' learning and academic performance.

    Lecture 03

    Science

    1. Ways of Knowing
      1. Dogmatism
      2. Rationalism
      3. Empiricism
        1. Positivism
      4. Science
    2. Functions of Science
      1. Description
      2. Prediction
      3. Explanation
      4. Control
        1. Basic vs. Applied Research
    3. Terminology
      1. Variable
      2. Hypothesis
      3. Law
      4. Theory
    4. Scientific Process
      1. Hypotheses
      2. Theory
      3. Observation
    5. Three Criteria Used to Evaluate a Theory
      1. Parsimony
      2. Breadth
      3. Generativity

    Overview

    My aim in this lecture was to demystify science. I emphasized that science is simply one way of acquiring knowledge (or learning what the world is like). It combines logic with rigorous observation. Scientists use logic to generate hypotheses, and test those hypotheses in such a way that multiple, neutral observers can verify the findings.

    I also described the functions science serves, and clarified the difference between basic research and applied research. I then defined four common scientific terms (variable, hypothesis, law, and theory) and showed how they combine to create the "scientific process." Finally, I discussed three criteria we use to evaluate theories: Parsimony (good theories are no more complex than they need to be), breadth (good theories explain a lot of different things), and generativity (good theories stimulate research).


    Specifics

    • Identify and describe four ways of knowing (with science being the last).
    • Identify four functions science can serve, and be able to distinguish basic research and applied research.
    • Distinguish among the following terms: Variables, Hypotheses, Laws, and Theories, and discuss the criteria used to evaluate theories.
    • Know the roles deductive and inductive logic play in science.

    Ways of Knowing

    Way of KnowingDescription
    Dogmatism 
    Rationalism 
    Empiricism 

    Positivism

     
    Science 


    Functions of Science

    FunctionDescription
    Description 
    Prediction 
    Explanation 
    Control 

    Chapter 02

    • Describe three key scientific attitudes and how they guided Darley and Latané's response to the Genovese murder.
    • Use Darley and Latané's research or another study to illustrate five major steps in the scientific process.
    • Explain the major drawback of hindsight understanding. What approach to understanding do scientists prefer? Why?
    • Describe some characteristics of a good theory.
    • Why are operational definitions important? Identify five major ways to measure behavior and explain a limitation of each one.
    • Identify major ethical principles and standards in human and animal research.
    • Discuss three types of descriptive research, and explain the advantages and disadvantages of each.
    • What is random sampling and why do survey researchers use it? What problems can occur when conducting surveys?
    • Describe three components of correlational research and how they are illustrated by the study of very happy people.
    • Explain why scientists cannot draw causal conclusions from correlational research. Discuss an example.
    • Explain positive and negative correlation coefficients and scatterplots. How does correlation facilitate prediction?
    • What is the major advantage of experiments? Identify the key characteristics and logic of experiments.
    • What are independent and dependent variables? Experimental and control groups?
    • How and why are random assignment and counterbalancing used to design experiments?
    • Explain the advantage of manipulating two independent variables in the same experiment.
    • What is internal validity? Why does the confounding of variables decrease internal validity?
    • What are placebo effects and experimenter expectancy effects? How can they be minimized?
    • What is external validity? Why is replication important? Apply these concepts to paranormal claims.
    • What are some things you can do to be a critical consumer of statistics?
    • Describe three measures of central tendency and two measures of variability.
    • What is the purpose of inferential statistics? What is statistical significance?
    • Describe the purpose of meta-analysis.
    • What critical thinking questions can be used to evaluate claims made in everyday life?

    Lecture 04

    Brain 1

    1. Neuroscience
      1. Neuropsychology
      2. Crick's "Astonishing Hypothesis"
      3. Guiding Assumptions
      4. Two Guiding Questions
        1. Where
        2. How
      5. Methods
        1. Brain Functioning
        2. Neurological Damage
        3. Animal Studies
    2. The Nervous System
      1. Divisions
      2. Cells within the Nervous System
    3. Neurons
      1. Three types
      2. Neuron Anatomy
        1. Cell Body
        2. Cell Nucleus
        3. Dendrites
        4. Axon
        5. Terminal Buttons
        6. Myelin Sheath
        7. Nodes of Ranvier

    Overview

    In this lecture, I introduced the field of neuropsychology. We discussed the issues that stimulate research in this area, as well as the methods used to address these issues. Next, I tried to give you a sense of the simplicity and complexity of the physical processes that underlie psychological phenomena.

    The neuron is the nervous system's most fundamental unit. Neurons can be found in very primitive organisms (e.g., jellyfish, roundworms), and their structure and function have not changed much for ~550 million years. In humans (as in almost all other animals) three different types of neurons are found: Sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons. In addition to having structures found in almost all cells in the body (e.g., organelles and a nucleus within a cell body), neurons have specialized structures that transfer electrochemical signals. These structures are the dendrites, axon, and terminal buttons. Many axons are wrapped in a fatty substance, called myelin.


    Specifics

    • Describe two cells within the nervous system, and discuss their major functions.
    • Identify, by sight, 7 structures of a typical neuron, and be able to describe their function.



    Neuron Terminology

    TypeCell Bodies and DendritesAxons
    Sensory  
    Motor  
    Interneuron  

    Lecture 05

    Brain 2

    1. Evolution of the Nervous System
    2. Electrochemical Communication
      1. Neurons produce electrical signals
      2. Electrical signals are generated by chemical changes
    3. Resting Phase
      1. Distribution of potassium and sodium ions
      2. Negative electrical change (~-70mV)
    4. Action Potentials
      1. Depolarization
      2. Repolarization
      3. Propagation
      4. All or None Principle
      5. Transmission Speed

    Overview

    Psychological phenomena are generated by electrical signals. The process underlies all aspects of psychological life, including emotion, behavior, dreams, and memory, and has remained unchanged for several hundred million years. Billions of neurons have been firing in the time it has taken you to read this paragraph and consider its implications.

    Neurons communicate by means of an electrical signal called the Action Potential. These signals are produced by sudden reversals in a neuron's electrical charge. These reversals are produced by the movement of ions across a neuronal membrane. This process is called electrochemical communication: Chemical changes produce electrical signals.


    Specifics

    • Identify two main factors that influence the distribution of ions within and outside of a neuron.
    • Know the relative distribution of potassium and sodium ions during a neuron's resting phase, and the (approximate) electrical current the flow of these ions creates.
    • Describe what happens to the distribution of potassium and sodium ions during depolarization (along with the factors that create this distribution), and know the (approximate) electrical current the flow of these ions creates.
    • Be familiar with the following terms as they pertain to the flow of the electrical current through a neuron: Hyperpolarization, propagation, and the "all or none principle."
    • Identify two factors that influence how fast an electrical charge travels through a neuron.

    Lecture 06

    Brain 3

    1. Synaptic Transmission
      1. Otto Loewi's Dream
      2. Synaptic Transmission
    2. Major Neurotransmitters
    3. Psychoactive Drugs

    Overview

    Scientists once believed that neurons physically touch one another and communicate with electrical signals, but in an experiment that allegedly came to him in a dream, Otto Loewi first showed that neurons communicate through the exchange of chemicals, not through electrical signals. These chemicals are now known as neurotransmitters.

    Nearly 100 neurotransmitters have been identified, but 6 important ones were discussed in lecture. These chemicals have different effects depending on the receptor site of the neighboring axon.

    Psychoactive drugs are exogenous substances that affect psychological phenomena by altering the normal transfer of a neurotransmitter. This disruption can occur during any of four stages.


    Specifics

    • Be familiar with Otto Loewi's experimental demonstration that neurons communicate chemically.
    • Describe the role that calcium plays in synaptic transmission.
    • Be able to identify six major neurotransmitters and some of their dominant effects.
    • Describe four stages during which psychoactive drugs can alter the transmission of neurotransmitters, and be familiar with how two drugs, Prozac and cocaine, achieve their effects.

    Major Neurotransmitters

    NeurotransmitterPrimary FunctionMalfunctions

    Acetylcholine (ACh)

      

    Dopamine

      

    Norepinephrine

      

    Serotonin

      

    GABA

      

    Glutamate

      


    Psychoactive Drugs

    StepAgonistAntagonist

    Production

      

    Release

      

    Reception

      

    Deactivation

      

    Lecture 07

    Brain 4

    1. Nervous System
      1. Functions
        1. React
        2. Desire
        3. Plan
      2. Divisions
        1. Central Nervous System
        2. Peripheral Nervous System
      3. Terminology
    2. Peripheral Nervous System
      1. Somatic Nervous System
      2. Autonomic Nervous System
        1. Sympathetic Division
        2. Parasympathetic Division
    3. Central Nervous System
      1. Brain
      2. Spinal Cord
        1. Spinal Reflex
        2. Why Spinal Reflexes are Fast

    Overview

    In humans (as in almost all animals), neurons do not exist in a haphazard arrangement. Instead, they are organized in an elegant system that speeds the flow of information in and out of a central command. The central nervous system, consisting of the brain and spinal cord, serves as this central command, and almost all of the 100 billion neurons in the human body are found there.

    The peripheral nervous system contains the remaining neurons (a few million). The peripheral nervous system has several subdivisions that govern the control of muscles, glands, and organs.

    The spinal cord contains a few billion neurons. It generally relays information to and from the periphery to the brain. But spinal reflexes that do not require any brain involvement also exist. These reflexes are of two types: Monosynaptic reflexes that to not involve interneurons (knee jerk reflex) and polysynaptic ones that involve sensory, motor, and interneurons within the spinal cord (pain reflex).


    Specifics

    • Identify the structures that comprise the central and peripheral nervous system, and distinguish nerves and tracts, and white matter and gray matter.
    • Be familiar with the divisions of the peripheral nervous system, and discuss their functions.
    • Understand the dynamics of a spinal reflex, and the role brain processes do and do not play.

    Peripheral Nervous System

    DivisionsPrimary Function
    Somatic Nervous System 
    Autonomic Nervous System 

    Sympathetic Division of the ANS

     

    Parasympathetic Division of the ANS

     

    Lecture 08

    Brain 5

    1. Brain
      1. Divisions
        1. Hindbrain
        2. Midbrain
        3. Forebrain (aka Cerebrum)
      2. Brain Development
        1. Ontology
        2. Phylogenesis
    2. Brain Stem
      1. Structures
      2. Function
    3. Forebrain
      1. Subcortical Structures
      2. Limbic System

    Overview

    The brain consists of a variety of structures that are organized into divisions and functional systems. The broadest division involves the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain. Each of these divisions, in turn, consists of specific neurological structures.

    The three divisions emerge early in fetal development, differentiated four weeks after conception. Later development in humans brings further differentiation. There is also reason to believe these structures evolved at different times. The hindbrain and midbrain areas are well-developed in fish and reptiles, while the forebrain is well-developed only in birds and mammals. Primates have a particularly large and well-developed forebrain.

    The hindbrain and midbrain regulate instinctive behaviors and govern processes relevant to survival. Animals whose forebrains have been surgically severed from the other two areas of the brain can perform many behaviors that normal animals perform, as long as they are externally stimulated. The limbic system, which we identified as having six subcortical structures, governs learned and motivated behavior.


    Specifics

    • Visually identify the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain.
    • Describe the specific structures that comprise the hindbrain, midbrain, and brain stem.
    • Know the location and importance of the reticular formation.
    • Describe the structures that comprise the limbic system and, for each one, specify how they influence learned and motivated behavior.

    Lecture 09

    Brain 6

    1. Cerebral Cortex
      1. Lobes
      2. Areas of Specialization
      3. Hemispheres
      4. Speech Comprehension and Production Areas
    2. Prefrontal Cortex
      1. Function
      2. Development
    3. Cerebral Hemispheres
      1. Corpus Callosum
      2. Contralateral Functioning
      3. Hemispheric Lateralization

    Overview

    The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the forebrain (cerebrum). It is highly developed in humans with numerous ridges that increase its surface area without increasing its size. It is divided into lobes, areas of specialization, and hemispheres. Each of these areas performs specific functions, although many functions occur in more than one location or structure.

    The prefrontal cortex is an area directly behind the nose. It is widely-assumed to be the seat of reason, judgment, and planning, and is not fully developed until 25 years of age.

    The cortex is divided into two hemispheres that exhibit contralateral functioning. Each hemisphere is specialized for performing certain functions. In all mammals (except marsupials), the two sides are connected by a rich web of myelinated axons called the corpus callosum.


    Specifics

    • Visually identify the four lobes of the cortex, the three primary association areas, and Wernicke's and Broca's area.
    • Describe the general functions the four lobes serve, and the specific language functions that are localized in Wernicke's area and Broca's area.
    • Visually find the prefrontal cortex, and describe its role in executive functioning.
    • Visually identify the corpus callosum, and describe the specific functions that are specialized in the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere.

    Cerebrum Lobes

    LobeLocationPrimary Function

    Parietal

      

    Occipital

      

    Temporal

      

    Frontal

      

    Chapter 04

    • Name and describe the functions of the three main parts of the neuron. What do glial cells do?
    • What chemical actions create the neuron's resting potential? What chemical changes cause the action potential?
    • What is the nature and importance of the myelin sheath>? What disorder results from damage to it?
    • Describe five important steps in neurotransmitter function. How do transmitters produce excitation and inhibition? How are they deactivated?
    • Describe the roles played by acetylcholine and the consequences that occur when its functioning is disrupted.
    • How do agonist and antagonist functions underlie the neural and behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs?
    • What are the three major types of neurons in the nervous system? What are their functions?
    • Name the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system. How does the autonomic system maintain homeostasis?
    • How do the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous branches differ?
    • What are the two main structures in the central nervous system?
    • What are spinal reflexes?
    • Describe four methods used to study brain-behavior relations.
    • How are CAT scans, PET scans, and MRIs produced, and what kinds of information does each provide?
    • Which behavioral functions are controlled by the medulla, the pons, and the cerebellum? What is the consequence of damage to these structures?
    • Describe the roles played by the ascending and descending reticular formation. What occurs with damage to this structure?
    • Describe the structural characteristics and functions of the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
    • What roles do the hippocampus and amygdala play
    • What are the demarcations for the four lobes of the brain?
    • How are sensory and motor functions organized in the cortex?
    • Where are Wernicke's and Broca's areas? How are they involved in speech?
    • What is the role of the association cortex?
    • Describe the role of the frontal cortex in higher mental (including executive) functions.
    • How did the study of killers illustrate the roles of brain and environment?
    • What is hemispheric lateralization, and what functions are localized in the left and right hemispheres?
    • How was it possible to "split" the brain and study hemispheric functions?
    • What observations established he left hemisphere's verbal abilities?
    • What is neural plasticity? How do age, early experience, and behavior affect plasticity?
    • Why is greater plasticity possible early in life?
    • Describe the ways in which neural function can be restored following damage.
    • How does the endocrine system differ from the nervous system? How do hormones affect development and behavior?
    • How are the adrenal glands important in psychological functions?

    Lecture 10

    Genes 1

    1. Evolution, Genetics, & Psychology
      1. Evolutionary Psychology
      2. Behavioral Genetics
    2. Protein Synthesis
      1. Amino Acids
      2. Proteins
      3. Genes
      4. Genome
    3. Gene Replication
      1. Meiosis
      2. Alleles
      3. Genotypes & Phenotypes
      4. Monogenic & Polygenic Traits
    4. Psychology and Genetics
      1. Topics
      2. Understanding What's Inherited

    Overview

    If we accept that psychological phenomena have a biological basis, we must also consider the origins of biological structures and processes. Like all aspects of our anatomy, the nervous system is inherited from our biological parents and its specification is contained in our DNA. To understand ourselves as a species and how we differ as individuals, we need to understand mechanisms of inheritance.

    I began this lecture by discussing protein synthesis. Proteins are molecules that influence virtually all aspects of human functioning. They are synthesized from amino acids, and the blueprint used to create proteins is specified by DNA molecules found in chromosomes.

    We then discussed gene replication, and the importance of distinguishing between genotypes and phenotypes. Finally, we noted that, unlike some physical phenomena (e.g., dimples), psychological phenomena are influenced by a host of genes working together in ways not yet fully understood.


    Specifics

    • Define evolutionary psychology and behavioral genetics.
    • Define each of the following terms and be able to describe their relationship (i.e., what produces what): Amino acids, chromosomes, codons, DNA molecules, genes, proteins.
    • Define and distinguish the terms in each of the following pairs: (a) mitosis and meiosis, (b) genes and alleles, (c) genotypes and phenotypes, and (d) monogenic and polygenic traits.


    Amino Acids, Proteins, & Genes

    StructureDefinition

    Amino Acids

     

    Proteins

     

    Chromosomes

     

    DNA

     

    Codon

     

    Gene

     

    Lecture 11

    Genes 2

    1. Evolution & Psychology
      1. Definition
      2. Guiding Assumptions
      3. Two Causal Explanations
        1. Proximate Explanations
        2. Ultimate Explanations
      4. Two Similarities
        1. Homologous
        2. Analogous
    2. Selective Breeding
      1. Artificial Selection
      2. Natural Selection
      3. Behaviors are Heritable
      4. Heritable Qualities
    3. Sex Differences in Mating Preferences

    Overview

    The biological structures we see today (and the psychological phenomena they produce) are products of hundreds of thousands of years of selective pressures. Structures that increased reproductive fitness were preferentially selected, making them part of human nature. In this sense, ancient consequences sculpted psychological structures and processes.


    It is important to remember that the structures and processes we possess today are ones that were adaptive in the past. Modern life is quite different than the life our ancient ancestors lived, so it is entirely possible that the structures that once improved reproductive success are no longer adaptive.


    Men and women face different reproductive challenges, and many people believe these challenges underlie sex differences in mating strategies.


    Specifics

    1. Distinguish ultimate and proximate explanations
    2. Distinguish homologous and analogous and similarities, and know what each reveals.
    3. Discuss what is meant by artificial selection, and compare it with natural selection.
    4. What evidence suggests that behaviors can be inherited, and what is the name for an inherited behavior?
    5. Describe and identify four types of heritable qualities.

    Specifics

    • Distinguish ultimate and proximate explanations
    • Distinguish homologous and analogous and similarities, and know what each reveals.
    • Discuss what is meant by artificial selection, and compare it with natural selection.
    • What evidence suggests that behaviors can be inherited, and what is the name for an inherited behavior?
    • Describe and identify four types of heritable qualities.

    Heritable Qualities

    CharacteristicDescriptionExample

    Adaptation

      

    Vestige

      

    Byproduct

      

    Noise

      

    Chapter 03

    • What was the most interesting group studied in the Minnesota project?
    • Differentiate between genotype and phenotype. How do genes regulate biological structures and functions?
    • Describe dominant, recessive, and polygenic influences on phenotype.
    • Describe techniques used to modify genes for research and therapeutic purposes.
    • Describe three research approaches used to estimate genetic and environmental determinants of behavior.
    • Define heritability. How is heritability of a trait estimated?
    • Contrast the behavioristic and ethological assumptions regarding the development of behavior.
    • Discuss the relation of evolution and culture to species and personal adaptations. What are the basic adaptations that organisms must learn?
    • How large a factor is heritability in individual differences in intelligence?
    • Describe shared and unshared environmental influences on intelligence. How is this affected by social class?
    • Describe the heritability of personality and the role of shared and unshared environmental influences on personality differences.
    • Describe reaction range and its hypothesized effects on the genetic expression of intelligence.
    • Describe the ways that genotype can affect environmental influences on behavior.
    • Define evolution and explain how genetic variation and natural selection produce adaptations.
    • How does brain evolution illustrate the natural selection of biological mechanisms?
    • How have evolutionary principles been used to account for diverse cultures?
    • Do genetically based diseases provide an argument against natural selection?
    • Describe examples of human behavior that suggest innate evolved mechanisms. Differentiate between remote and proximate causal factors.
    • Contrast sexual strategies and social structure explanations for mate preferences, citing results from cross-cultural research.
    • How does evolutionary theory account for the universal nature of the Big Five personality traits and of variation on each of them?
    • Describe some of the fallacies that can arise from misinterpreting evolutionary theory.

    Lecture 12

    Sensation

    1. Sensation & Perception
      1. Three Component Processes
      2. Adaptive Senses
      3. Sensation Sans Perception
    2. Perception
      1. Bottom Up
      2. Top Down
      3. Visual Search
    3. Psychophysics
      1. Absolute Thresholds
      2. Just Noticeable Difference
      3. Weber's Law

    Overview

    Because the nervous system evolved to help animals react to the external world, sensing external stimuli is a fundamental psychological phenomenon. Perception is a bit different, as it involves a (more or less) conscious awareness of what we have sensed and the meaning we attach to sensory experience. All animals have senses, but not all perceive.

    We began this lecture by discussing the processes involved in sensation and perception. Next, we considered why we have the senses that we do, and discussed situations in which animals sense without perceiving. We then considered the nature of visual search. Finally, we discussed the field of psychophysics, which models the relation between physical stimuli and psychological perception.


    Specifics

    • Distinguish sensation, transduction, and perception
    • Distinguish bottom-up and top-down processes of perception
    • Describe Hubel and Wiesel's (1962) findings and know why their findings are important.
    • Describe the two-stage model of feature detection, and distinguish automatic, parallel processing from effortful, serial processing.
    • Know what the following terms refer to, and how they related to the two-stage model of feature detection: Pop out Effect ¡X a Distractor Size Effect.
    • Define the absolute threshold, the just noticeable difference, and the terms that comprise Weber's Law.

    Visual Search

    Primary FeatureSearch TypeProcessing TypePop Out?Distractor Size Effect

    Distinctive

        

    Nondistinctive

        

    Lecture 13

    Perception

    1. Top Down Processes
      1. Bottom Up: Whole=Parts
      2. Top Down: Whole>Parts
      3. Context
    2. Gestalt Psychology
      1. Interdependence
      2. Figure & Ground
      3. Laws of Perceptual Organization
      4. Perceptual Schemas & Sets
    3. Perceptual Illusions

    Overview

    According to Locke and the associationists, the whole is = to the sum of the parts. Gestalt psychologists objected to this assumption, arguing that the whole is > than the sum of the parts. In making this assertion, the Gestalt psychologists sought to underscore the degree to which perception is a top-down, theory driven process, rather than a bottom-up, data driven one.


    Specifics

    • Distinguish bottom-up from top-down processes.
    • Identify the central assumptions Gestalt psychology makes
    • Be familiar with four laws of perception.
    • Be familiar with perceptual constancy, especially as it pertains to the apparent size of figures near and far from the eye.

    Chapter 05

    • Describe the six stages in the sensory processing and perception of information. Differentiate between sensation and perception
    • Define the absolute threshold from traditional and signal-detection perspectives.
    • How do subliminal stimuli affect consumer behavior, attitudes, and self-improvement outcomes?
    • What is the difference threshold? What is Weber's law, and why is it important?
    • How does the lens affect visual acuity, and how does its dysfunction cause myopia and hyperopia?
    • How are the rods and cones distributed in the retina, and how do they contribute to brightness perception, color vision, and visual acuity?
    • How does the transduction process occur in the photoreceptors of the eye?
    • What is the physiological basis for dark adaptation and for the two components of the dark adaptation curve?
    • Summarize the trichromatic, opponent-process, and dual-process theories of color vision. What evidence supports each theory?
    • What kinds of feature detectors exist in the visual system? What is parallel processing of sensory information?
    • Describe the two physical characteristics of sound waves and their relation to auditory experience.
    • Describe how the middle and inner ear structures are involved in the auditory transduction process.
    • Describe the frequency and place theories of pitch perception. In what sense are both theories correct?
    • What are the two kinds of deafness, and how can they be treated?
    • Describe the stimuli and the receptors involved in gustation and olfaction
    • Describe the receptors and processing mechanisms for the tactile senses.
    • What are the two major body senses? Where are their receptors?
    • What sensory principles underlie sensory prosthetics for the blind and the hearing impaired?
    • Compare bottom-up and top-down processing of sensory information.
    • What two complementary processes occur in attention? What is inattentional blindness? What kinds of external and internal factors influence attention?
    • Which Gestalt psychology principles and laws underlie perceptual organization?
    • What roles do perceptual schemas and perceptual sets play in our sensory interpretations?
    • What factors account for shape, brightness, and size constancy in vision?
    • Describe the major monocular and binocular depth/distance cues, as well as the bases for movement perception.
    • What is an illusion? How are constancies and context involved in visual illusions?
    • What evidence shows that cultural factors can influence perceptual interpretations, constancies, and susceptibility to illusions?
    • How do studies of restricted stimulation and restored vision illustrate the role of critical periods in perceptual development?

    Names to Know

    For each of the following, be able to identify their main contribution to psychology (or philosophy).

    1. Clark, Kenneth & Mamie
    2. Crick & Watson
    3. Darwin, Charles
    4. Descartes, René
    5. Freud, Sigmund
    6. Hobbes, Thomas
    7. Hodgkin & Huxley
    8. Hubel & Wiesel
    9. James, William
    10. Locke, John
    11. Loewi ,Otto
    12. Maslow, Abraham
    13. Mendel, Gregor
    14. Olds, James
    15. Skinner, B.F.
    16. Sperry, Roger
    17. Watson, John B.
    18. Weber, Ernst
    19. Wundt, William