Information is provided on two courses. The first runs for a full term and the second is a two-day short course.
Extension School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN
When: Fall Term 1996
Instructor: Dr. J. Edward Anderson
Prerequisite: Engineering Mechanics, senior or graduate engineer standing
Textbook: J. E. Anderson, Transit Systems Theory, Lexington Books, D. C.
Heath (1978) and compilation of more recent instructor's papers from the Journal of Advanced Transportation.
Lectures: Two two-hour periods per week, for 10 weeks.
Assignments: Reading, problems, computer programs.
The economic, operational and physical theory of traditional and new transit systems with the aim to determine optimal solutions in specific situations. Based on economic analysis, it is shown how to derive a transit system that is optimal for a wide range of applications. The course covers transit economics, kinematics and control, energy use, space-curved guideways, network planning, performance analysis, theory of availability and dependability, reliability allocation, failure modes and effects analysis, and design issues. The student will be prepared to participate in professional work in transit planning projects.
Week - Topics
1 - Introduction
Introduction to present and emerging transit systems such as personal rapid
transit and dual mode transportation, to transit data sources and to the
economics of transit. Preliminary analysis of break-even fare. Demonstration
of computer- analysis tools. Ample time is allowed for questions and
discussion of transit issues.
2 - Economic Optimization
The system equation for cost per passenger per unit distance. Interpretation
of the cost equation in terms of system characteristics. System equations for
peak hour and daily average load factor. Comparison of systems.
3 - Kinematics
Ride-comfort parameters, state-change equations, power-limited speed
profiles, safe headway, station operations and throughput, vehicle control,
safe-design criteria. Computer calculation of speed profiles.
4 - Force, Power and Energy
Inertial, aerodynamic, road resistance, and magnetic drag forces. System
equation for energy use per passenger per unit of distance, use in
comparative analysis of transit systems.
5 - Curved Guideways
Theory of space curves and their calculation. Superelevation. Spiral
transitions to curves and parallel guideways at constant speed and constant
deceleration. Minimization of length of station guideways.
6 - Network Planning
Performance parameters of network transit systems. Ridership. Factors in
network layout. Visual impact and span length of elevated systems, integration into
the community. Layout of specific applications.
7 - Performance and Fleet Size
Demand matrix, line and station flows, dwell time, operating headway, average
and minimum headway. Methods of calculation of performance in loop and network
transit systems. Specific applications.
8 - Measures of On-Time Performance and Reliability Allocation Theory
Equations for measurement and calculation of availability and dependability.
Redundancy. Lagrangian minimization of life cycle cost subject to
performance constraints. Application to design of transit systems.
9 - Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
Subsystems and classes of failure. Estimation of mean time to failure of
critical failure modes. Implications for design. Operations analysis of
person-hours of delay due to failures.
10 - Design Issues
Design criteria and philosophy. Hanging vs. supported vehicles. Optimum
cross section. Wind, earthquake, and dynamic loading. Natural frequency and
ride comfort. Dynamic analysis of guideways in bending and torsion. Optimum
span length. Vehicle size and layout. Switch criteria. Control
alternatives. Suspension and propulsion tradeoffs.
November 21-22, 1996
Marriott City Center Hotel
Instructor: J. Edward Anderson, Ph.D., P. E.
This short course is provided for attendees at the International Conferenceon PRT and other Emerging Transportation Systems who need a systematic
grounding in fundamentals needed to specify, plan, and make decisions about
new types of automated guideway transportation. The "new types" implied in
the title of the conference include captive-vehicle personal rapid transit,
dual-mode transportation, and high-speed intercity versions of these systems.
The key distinguishing feature of these systems over the conventional is
that the stops or stations are on by-pass guideways, called "off-line
stations," so that each trip in a network of guideways can be nonstop from
origin to destination. The "nonstop" feature typically more than doubles
average transit speed, which is the primary factor in attracting riders, and
is practical if small, rather than large, vehicles are used. The combination
of small vehicles and nonstop trips results in a series of additional
advantages that combine to create a major breakthrough in public
The emergence of the new systems, which will be of great benefit for mankind,
requires under- standing of a series of engineering principles that can be
called "transit systems theory," in addition to an appreciation of how
certain technologies not available a decade ago can be applied to obtain the
desired goal of adequate performance and safety at minimum cost. Two days is
a short time to become truly proficient but enough to be far ahead of the
person not familiar with the topics treated in the workshop. Text material
will be given to each participant to provide a basis for further study. The
two-day workshop will be divided into eight 90-minute sessions, with time for
discussion included during breaks and class time. The course is designed to
be followed with a minimum of engineering background but with some knowledge
of elementary mathematics. The details of analysis of the new systems are
highly analytical, yet a broader audience than the professional
transportation engineer needs to have reasonable grasp of the fundamentals,
and it is to that end that the workshop has been constructed. Computer
demonstrations will be used to illustrate certain points and to demonstrate
planning capabilities available.
8:30-10am - Introduction
Short Introduction by Gordon Amundson
An explanation of the structure of the workshop
Some history of PRT and Dual-Mode development
Questions, answers and comments about the concepts presented at the
Essential elements of transit systems theory.
10:30-noon - Economics
Economic optimization of transit systems based on a system-significant form
of the equation for break-even fare of a transit system per passenger per
unit of distance, i. e. how to derive the optimum characteristics of a
1:30-3pm - Kinematics
Essential one-dimensional kinematics of transit systems. Ride comfort
criteria. Speed profiles, stopping distance, average speed, headway,
principles of design for safe headway. How PRT safe-headway principals
differ from railroad practice. Station operations and throughput.
3:30-5pm - Energy Use
Force, power and energy. A system-significant equation for energy use per
passenger per unit of distance. A comparison of the fundamental factors that
determine energy use in transit systems.
8:30-10am - Layout and Planning
Layout of guideways and principals of network planning. Spiral transition
curves, super-elevation, curve radii, factors that influence the length of
station-bypass guideways and the distance between branch points, implications
of types of intersections on throughput, design to minimize congestion,
typical guideway layouts, circuity.
10:30-noon - Coping with Failures
On-time performance, reliability allocation, failure modes and effects,
implications for design.
1:30-3pm - Control
Synchronous, quasi-synchronous, point-synchronous, asynchronous control.
Point following and car following. Control criteria and requirements.
Effect of propulsion type.
3:30-5pm - System Design
System requirements. Some alternatives and trade-offs. Rules of engineering
design, requirements for a successful PRT design program, psychology of
design, enhancement of creativity in design.
For more details, please contact Dr. J.E. Anderson via e-mail at email@example.com
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Last modified: May 24, 1996