SELF-MONITORING SCALE

 

Developed by Mark Snyder (1974)

 

DIRECTIONS: The statements below concern your personal reactions to a number of different situations. No two statements are exactly alike, so consider each statement carefully before answering. IF a statement is TRUE or MOSTLY TRUE as applied to you, circle the "T" next to the question. If a statement is FALSE or NOT USUALLY TRUE as applied to you, circle the "F" next to the question.

(T) (F) 1. I find it hard to imitate the behavior of other people.

 

(T) (F) 2. My behavior is usually an expression of my true inner feelings, attitudes, and beliefs.

 

(T) (F) 3. At parties and social gatherings, I do not attempt to do or say things that others will like.

 

(T) (F) 4. I can only argue for ideas which I already believe.

 

(T) (F) 5. I can make impromptu speeches even on topics about which I have almost no information.

 

(T) (F) 6. I guess I put on a show to impress or entertain people.

 

(T) (F) 7. When I am uncertain how to act in a social situation, I look to the behavior of others for cues.

 

(T) (F) 8. I would probably make a good actor.

 

(T) (F) 9. I rarely seek the advice of my friends to choose movies, books, or music.

 

(T) (F) 10. I sometimes appear to others to be experiencing deeper emotions than I actually am.

 

(T) (F) 11. I laugh more when I watch a comedy with others than when alone.

 

(T) (F) 12. In groups of people, I am rarely the center of attention.

 

(T) (F) 13. In different situations and with different people, I often act like very different persons.

 

(T) (F) 14. I am not particularly good at making other people like me.

 

(T) (F) 15. Even if I am not enjoying myself, I often pretend to be having a good time.

 

(T) (F) 16. I'm not always the person I appear to be.

 

(T) (F) 17. I would not change my opinions (or the way I do things) in order to please someone else or win their favor.

 

(T) (F) 18. I have considered being an entertainer.

 

(T) (F) 19. In order to get along and be liked, I tend to be what people expect me to be rather than anything else.

 

(T) (F) 20. I have never been good at games like charades or improvisational acting.

 

(T) (F) 21. I have trouble changing my behavior to suit different people and different situations.

 

(T) (F) 22. At a party, I let others keep the jokes and stories going.

 

(T) (F) 23. I feel a bit awkward in company and do not show up quite as well as I should.

 

(T) (F) 24. I can look anyone in the eye and tell a lie with a straight face (if for a right end).

 

(T) (F) 25. I may deceive people by being friendly when I really dislike them.

 

 

 

SCORING YOUR SELF-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE

Self-monitoring is the ability and desire to regulate one's public expressiveness to fit the clues and/or requirements of the stiuation.

 

SCORING KEY:

 

"T" and "F" (below) indicate responses of people who are high self-monitors. To calculate your self-monitoring score, place a check mark next to the questions that match the "T" and "F" responses below.  Count the total number of "check" marks that appear in the margin of your survey.  That number is your self-monitoring score.

 

A score that is between 0-12 would indicate that the respondent is a relatively low self-monitor; a score that is between 13-25 would indicate that the respondent is a relatively high self-monitor.

 

                                        SURVEY RESPONSES OF PEOPLE WHO TEND TO BE HIGH SELF-MONITORS:

( ) (F) 1. I find it hard to imitate the behavior of other people.

 

( ) (F) 2. My behavior is usually an expression of my true inner feelings, attitudes, and beliefs.

 

( ) (F) 3. At parties and social gatherings, I do not attempt to do or say things that others will like.

 

( ) (F) 4. I can only argue for ideas which I already believe.

 

(T) ( ) 5. I can make impromptu speeches even on topics about which I have almost no information.

 

(T) ( ) 6. I guess I put on a show to impress or entertain people.

 

(T) ( ) 7. When I am uncertain how to act in a social situation, I look to the behavior of others for cues.

 

(T) ( ) 8. I would probably make a good actor.

 

( ) (F) 9. I rarely seek the advice of my friends to choose movies, books, or music.

 

(T) ( ) 10. I sometimes appear to others to be experiencing deeper emotions than I actually am.

 

(T) ( ) 11. I laugh more when I watch a comedy with others than when alone.

 

( ) (F) 12. In groups of people, I am rarely the center of attention.

 

(T) ( ) 13. In different situations and with different people, I often act like very different persons.

 

( ) (F) 14. I am not particularly good at making other people like me.

 

(T) ( ) 15. Even if I am not enjoying myself, I often pretend to be having a good time.

 

(T) ( ) 16. I'm not always the person I appear to be.

 

( ) (F) 17. I would not change my opinions (or the way I do things) in order to please someone else or win their favor.

 

(T) ( ) 18. I have considered being an entertainer.

 

(T) ( ) 19. In order to get along and be liked, I tend to be what people expect me to be rather than anything else.

 

( ) (F) 20. I have never been good at games like charades or improvisational acting.

 

( ) (F) 21. I have trouble changing my behavior to suit different people and different situations.

 

( ) (F) 22. At a party, I let others keep the jokes and stories going.

 

( ) (F) 23. I feel a bit awkward in company and do not show up quite as well as I should.

 

(T) ( ) 24. I can look anyone in the eye and tell a lie with a straight face (if for a right end).

 

(T) ( ) 25. I may deceive people by being friendly when I really dislike them.

 

 

 

INTERPRETATION OF SCORES

 

In any setting, people are generally motivated to behave appropriately (Michener, Delamater, Schwartz, 1986, p. 192). People who are high in self-monitoring look for cues in the situation to tell them how to behave, whereas those who are low in self-monitoring use their own values and motives to guide their behavior. (Michener, Delamater, Schwartz, 1986, pp. 334-335). Self-monitoring involves three major and somewhat distinct tendencies (Greenberg & Baron, 1990, pp. 204-206):

 

(1) the willingness to be the center of attention -- a tendency to behave in outgoing, extraverted ways

(closely related to the social skill of emotional expressiveness);

 

(2) Sensitivity to the reactions of others;

 

(3) ability and willingness to adjust behavior to induce positive reactions in others.

 

We can say that "self-monitoring" refers to a person's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external situational factors. Individuals high in self-monitoring show considerable adaptability in their behavior. They are highly sensitive to external cues and can behave differently in different situations. They are capable of presenting striking contradictions between the public persona and the private self. By contrast, low self-monitors can't disguise themselves this way; they tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in every situation; hence, there is high behavioral consistency between who they are privately and what they do publicly (Robbins, 1993: 714).

 

High self-monitors are particularly sensitive to other people and alter their responses to others' cues. They are more flexible and responsive to their environment than low self-monitors are. For example, high self-monitors can be expected to demonstrate greater flexibility in adapting their leadership style to changing situations, using a variety of conflict-resolution techniques (Robbins, 1993: 714).

 

High self-monitors are people who readily adjust their own behavior to produce positive reactions in others and their actions are usually guided by the requirements of a given situation. They are different with different people and in different situations, compared to low self-monitors who seem less aware of or concerned with their impact on others. Low self-monitors' actions usually reflect their inner feelings and attitudes and they are less likely to change or adjust in each new context (Greenberg & Baron, 1990, pp. 204-206).

 

* RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELF-MONITORING AND OB:

 

Preliminary research evidence suggests that high self-monitors tend to pay closer attention to the behavior of others and are more capable of conforming than are low self-monitors. High self-monitors are more likely to be successful in managerial positions where individuals are required to play multiple, and even contradicting roles. Thus, the high self-monitor is capable of putting on different "faces" for different audiences.

 

** High self-monitors are often more effective than low self-monitors in jobs that require boundary spanning (communicating and interacting with different groups of people who, because of contrasting goals, training, or skills "speak different languages"). Since they can readily adjust their actions to the norms, expectations, and style of each group, high self-monitors are more successful in dealing with them than are low self-monitors, and this improves performance. Boundary-spanning roles are very important in most organizations, so assigning high self-monitoring people to such positions may yield substantial benefits.

 

Examples of occupations or positions that might require high self-monitoring would include HR manager, CEO, organizational development specialist or marketing and sales director. (Robbins, 1993: 108).

 

** High self-monitors tend to be better at clear communicating than low self-monitors.

 

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Key point of this exercise is:

 

WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR:

 

Team behavior? Managerial behavior? Organizational behavior? Effectiveness? Learning?