American Exodus
The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California

by James N. Gregory

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Links and Web Resources


James Gregory is author of another book that puts the Dust Bowl Migration in a broader context:

The Southern Diaspora: How The Great Migrations of Black and White Southerners Transformed America  (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005)

and these articles:

“Paying Attention to Moving Americans: Migration Knowledge in the Age of Internal Migration, 1930s-1970s,” Migrants and Migration in Modern North America: Cross-Border Lives, Labor Markets, and Politics in Canada, the Caribbean, Mexico, and the United States, eds. Dirk Hoerder and Nora Faires (Durham: Duke University Press, 2011), 277-96.

"Southernizing the American Working Class: Post War Episodes of Regional and Class Transformation," Labor History 39 (May 1998). A Labor History Forum article with comments by Thomas Sugrue, Grace Elizabeth Hale, and Alex Lichtenstein, and response by author

"The Southern Diaspora and the Urban Dispossessed: Demonstrating the Census Public Use Microdata Samples." Journal of American History 82 (June 1995).

"Dust Bowl Legacies: The Okie Impact on California 1939-1989"  California History (Fall 1989)


Other sources on the Dust Bowl Migration

 "Voices from the Dust Bowl: The Charles L. Todd and Robert Sonkin Migrant Worker Collection 1940-41" Songs and interviews recorded in the San Joaquin Valley migrant labor camps.

Dust Bowl Migration Digital Archives. A collection of 53 interviews conducted in 1980 and 1981 in Kern County, California.

Woody Guthrie and the Archive of American Folk Song: Correspondence 1940-1950

Weedpatch Camp website


Appalachians and other white southerners in the North

Urban Appalachian Council of Greater Cincinnati

Migration from Appalachia: Central Appalachians in Midwestern Cities-- A Pathfinder

"Fifty Years Later: The Appalachian Populations of the Washington Cascades" by Harry Robie