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Friday Harbor Laboratories
Integrated Center for Marine Biomaterials and Ecomechanics

Scientific Publications


Ehrlich, H., Brunner, E., Simon, P., Bazhenov, V., Botting, J.P., Tabachnick, K.R., Springer, A., Kummer, K., Vyalikh, D.V., Molodtsov, S.L., Kurek, D., Kammer, M., Born, R., Kovalev, A., Gorb, S.N., Koutsoukos, P.G.,, Summers, A. (2011) Calcite Reinforced Silica–Silica Joints in the Biocomposite Skeleton of Deep-Sea Glass Sponges Advanced Functional Materials 21:3473–3481

Long, J.H. Jr., K. Bantilan, M. Porter, T. J. Koob, J. Schaefer, A.P. Summers, and S. Grotmol (2011) Inspired by sharks: a biomimetic skeleton for the flapping propulsive tail of an aquatic robot. Mechanical Technological Society Journal.  45(4):119:129

Paig-Tran, E.W.M., J.J. Bizzarro, J.A. Strother, A.P. Summers (2011) Bottles as Models: predicting the effects of varying swimming speed and morphology on size selectivity and filtering efficiency in fishes. Journal of Experimental Biology. 214:1643-1654. (cover)

Crofts, S. and A.P. Summers (2011) Swimming in the Sahara Nature 472:177-178.

Gidmark, N.J., J.A. Strother, J.M. Horton, A.P. Summers and E.L. Brainerd (2011) Locomotory transition from water to sand and its effects on undulatory kinematics in sand lances (Ammodytidae). Journal of Experimental Biology 214:657-664.



Clark, A., E. Maravilla_ and A.P. Summers (2011) A soft origin for a forceful bite: motor patterns of the feeding musculature in Atlantic hagfish, Myxine glutinosa. Zoology 113:259:268 (cover).

Dean, M.N., J.J. Socha, B.K. Hall and A.P. Summers (2010) Canaliculi in the tessellated skeleton of cartilaginous fishes. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 2010:1-5.

Van der Meijden, A., A.P. Summers and A. Herrell (2010) Comparison of chela size and pincher force in scorpions; getting a first grip. Journal of Zoology. 280:319-325 (cover)

Gerry, S.P., A.P. Summers, C.D. Wilga, and M.N. Dean (2010). Pairwise modulation of jaw muscle activity in two species of elasmobranchs. Journal of Zoology. 281:282-292.

Xiaoxi, L., M. N. Dean, A. P. Summers, and J. C. Earthman (2010) Composite Model of the Shark's Skeleton in Bending:  a novel architecture for biomimetic design of functional compression bias. Materials Science and Engineering C 1077-1086.



Nowroozi, B. N., J. A. Strother, J.M. Horton, A.P. Summers, and E.L. Brainerd (2009) Whole body lift and ground effect during pectoral fin locomotion in the northern spearnose poacher (Agonopsis vulsa). Zoology 112: 393-402.

Clark, A.J. and A.P. Summers (2009) Serpentine Steps - News and Views. Nature 459, 919-920.

Tricas, T.C., S.M. Kajiura, and A.P. Summers (2009) Response of the hammerhead shark olfactory epithelium to amino acid stimuli. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 195:947-954.

Dean, M.N., C.G. Mull, S.G. Gorb and A.P. Summers (2009) Ontogeny of the tessellated skeleton: Insight from the skeletal growth of the round stingray Urobatis halleri. Journal of Anatomy 215:227-239. (Cover)

Gorb, S.N., S. Niederegger_, C. Y. Hayashi, A. P. Summers, W. Vötsch, and P. Walther (2009) Reply to Perez-Miles et al. concerning silk-like secretion from tarantula feet. Nature 461:E9-E10

Horton, J. and A.P. Summers (2009) Morphology and material properties of acellular bone from a fish. Journal of Experimental Biology.

Dean, M.N., Swanson, B.O. and A.P. Summers (2009) Biomaterials: Properties, variation and evolution. Integrative and Comparative Biology.



Dean, M.N., S.N. Gorb and A.P. Summers (2008) A cryoSEM method for preservation and visualization of calcified shark cartilage (and other stubborn heterogeneous skeletal tissues). Microscopy Today. November.

Wroe, S., D. Huber, M. Lowry, C. McHenry, K. Moreno, P. Clausen, T. L. Ferrara, E. Cunningham, M.N. Dean, A. P. Summers (2008) Three-dimensional computer analysis of white shark jaw mechanics: How hard can a great white bite? Journal of Zoology 276:336-342.

Kleinteich, T., A. Haas, and A.P. Summers (2008) Caecilian jaw closing mechanics - integrating two muscle systems. Proceedings of the Royal Society Interface. 5:1491-1504

Motta, P.J., R.E. Hueter, T.C. Tricas, A.P. Summers, D.R. Huber, D. Lowry, K.R. Mara, M.P. Matott, L.B. Whitenack and A.P. Wintzer (2008) Functional morphology of the feeding apparatus, feeding constraints, and suction performance in the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum. Journal of Morphology. 269:1041-1055. (Cover)

Huber, D.R., M.N. Dean, and A.P. Summers (2008) Hard prey, soft jaws, and the ontogeny of feeding mechanics in the spotted ratfish Hydrolagus colliei. Proceedings of the Royal Society Interface. 5:941-952.



Dean, M.N., J.J. Bizzaro and A.P. Summers (2007) The evolution of cranial design, diet and feeding mechanisms in batoid fishes. Integrative and Comparative Biology 47:70-81.

Porter, M.E., T.J. Koob and A.P. Summers (2007) The contribution of mineral to the material properties of vertebral cartilage from the smooth-hound shark (Mustelus californicus). Journal of Experimental Biology 210:3319-3327.

Dean, M.N. E. Azizi, and A.P. Summers (2007) Uniform strain in broad muscles: Active and passive effects of the twisted tendon of the ratfish, Hydrolagus colliei. Journal of Experimental Biology 210: 3395- 3406.

Patek, S.N., B.N. Nowroozi, J.E. Baio, R.L. Caldwell and A.P. Summers (2007) Linkage mechanics and power amplification of the mantis shrimp's raptorial strike. Journal of Experimental Biology 210:3677-3688.

Clark, A. and A.P. Summers (2007) Morphology and kinematics of feeding in hagfish: the selective advantages of jaws. Journal of Experimental Biology 210:3897-3909.

Dean, M.N. and A.P. Summers (2007) Fish feeding not a drag. Nature 445:827 – 828.



Dean, M.N. and A.P. Summers (2006) Mineralized cartilage in the skeleton of cartilaginous fishes. Zoology 109:164-168.

Porter, M.E., J.L. Beltrán, T.J. Koob and Summers A.P. (2006) Material properties and biochemical composition of mineralized vertebral cartilage in seven elasmobranch species (Chondrichthyes). Journal of Experimental Biology 209:2920-2928.

Swanson, B., Blackledge, T.A., Summers, A.P., and Hayashi, C.Y. (2006) Spider dragline silk: correlated and mosaic evolution in high performance biological materials. Evolution 60:2539-2551.

Gorb, S.N., S. Niederegger, C. Y. Hayashi, A. P. Summers, W. Vötsch, and P. Walther (2006) Silk-like secretion from tarantula feet. Nature 443:407.

Drucker, E.G. and Summers, A.P. and (2006) Moving with Fins and Limbs: An Historical Perspective on the Study of Animal Locomotion with Paired Appendages. In 'Fins into Limbs', B. K. Hall editor, University of Chicago Press.

Summers, A.P. and J.M. Long (2006) Mechanics of skeletal tissues of fishes. Fish Physiology Volume 23, G.V. Lauder and B. Shadwick, editors, Academic Press. pp 141-178.



Kajiura, S.M., J. B. Forni, and A.P. Summers (2005) Olfactory morphology of carcharhinid and sphyrnid sharks - does the cephalofoil confer a sensory advantage? Journal of Morphology 264: 253-263. (cover)

Blackledge, T.A., A.P. Summers, & C.Y. Hayashi (2005) Gumfooted lines and the mechanical properties of spider capture silk. Zoology 108:41-46.

Schaefer, J.T. and A.P. Summers (2005) Batoid wing skeletal structure: novel morphologies, mechanical implications, and phylogenetic patterns. Journal of Morphology 264: 298-313.

Dean, M.N., C.D.N. Wilga and A.P. Summers (2005) Eating without hands or tongue - specialization, elaboration and the evolution of prey processing mechanisms in cartilaginous fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society - Biology Letters 1(3) 357-361.

Kajiura, S.M., J.B. Forni_ J.P. Tyminski and A.P. Summers (2005) The sexually dimorphic cephalofoil of bonnethead sharks, Sphyrna tiburo Biological Bulletin: 209: 1-5. (Cover)

Summers, A.P. and M.H. Wake (2005) Streptostyly and the biomechanics of the caecilian jaw closing mechanism. Zoology 108:307-315.

Dean, M.N., W. Chiou, & A.P. Summers (2005) Morphology and ultrastructure of prismatic cartilage calcification. Microscopy & Microanalysis. 11: 1196-1197.

Summers, A.P. (2005) Journal Club. Nature 436:307.

Summers, A.P. (2005) Warm hearted crocs, News and Views, Nature 434:833-834



Summers, A.P., R. Ketcham, and T. Rowe (2004) Structure and function of the horn shark (Heterodontus francsisi) cranium through ontogeny - the development of a hard prey crusher. Journal of Morphology 260: 1-12. (cover)

Summers, A.P. (2004) Fast Fish, News and Views, Nature, 429::31-32.




Kajiura, S.M., J. B. Forni_, and A.P. Summers (2003) Maneuvering in carcharhinid and sphyrnid sharks: the role of the hammerhead shark cephalofoil. Zoology 106(1): 19-28. (cover)

*Summers, A.P., and L.A. Ferry-Graham (2003) Respiration in elasmobranchs: new models of aquatic ventilation. In 'Vertebrate Biomechanics and Evolution' V. Bels, J-P Gasc, and A. Casinos editors. BIOS, England. pp 87-100

Wake, M.H., and A.P. Summers. (2003) Morphology. In Key Concepts and Approaches in Evolutionary Development Biology, B. K. Hall and W. M. Olson eds., Harvard University Press. Pp 268-275.

Summers, A.P. M.M. Koob-Emunds, S.M. Kajiura, and T.J. Koob. (2003) A novel fibrocartilaginous tendon from an elasmobranch fish (Rhinoptera bonasus) Cell and Tissue Research 312: 221-227.



Koob, T.J. and A.P. Summers (2002) Tendon - bridging the gap. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 133(4) 905-909.

Motta, P.J. T. Tricas, R.L. Hueter and A.P. Summers (2002) The kinematics of the feeding mechanism of the Nurse Shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Copeia 2002(1): 24-38.

Mussi, M., A.P. Summers, and P. Domenici (2002) Gait transition speed, pectoral fin-beat frequency and amplitude in three species of Surfperch, Cymatogaster aggregata, Embiotoca lateralis,and Damalychtis vacca. Journal of Fish Biology 61: 1282-1293.

Summers, A.P. and Koob, T.J. (2002) The evolution of tendon. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 133(4):1159-1170.



Ferry-Graham, L.A. and A.P. Summers (2001) Ventilatory modes of elasmobranch fishes. Bulletin of the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory. 41: 31-32.

Jansen, K. P., A. P. Summers, and P. R. Delis (2001) Spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii holbrookii) in an urban landscape: effects of non-natural substrates on burrowing in adults and juveniles. Journal of Herpetology 35:141-145.

Summers, A.P. Caecilia volcani species account. (2001) Catalog of North American Amphibians. 721.1-2.

Summers, A.P. and L.A. Ferry-Graham (2001) Respiratory modes and mechanics of the hedgehog skate (Leucoraja erinacea) - testing the continuous flow model. Journal of Experimental Biology 204(9):1577-1587.

Summers, A.P., M.H. Wake (2001) A clarification regarding the holotype of Caecilia volcani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Copeia 2001(2): 561-562.

Summers, A.P., K.E. Hartel and T.J. Koob [2001] (1999) Agassiz, Garman, the Albatross and the deep-sea fishes. Marine Fisheries Review 61(4): 58-68.

Vredenberg, V. and A.P. Summers (2001) Field Identification of Chytridiomycosis in Rana muscosa. Herpetological Review.32(3):151-152.



Liem, K.F. and A.P. Summers (2000) Functional morphology, ecological modeling and feeding specializations - an integrative approach. Invited submission to Jan Osse Festschrift, Netherlands Journal of Zoology 50(2):245-259.

O'Reilly, J.C., A.P. Summers and D.A. Ritter (2000) The evolution of the functional role of trunk muscles during locomotion in adult amphibians. American Zoologist. 40(1):123-135. (cover)

Summers, A.P. (2000) Stiffening the stingray skeleton - an investigation of durophagy in myliobatid stingrays (Chondrichthyes, Batoidea, Myliobatidae) Journal of Morphology.243:113-126. (cover)



Bennett, W., A.P. Summers and E.L. Brainerd (1999). Confirmation of the passive exhalation hypothesis for a terrestrial caecilian, Dermophis mexicanus. Copeia 1999(1):206-209.

Ferry-Graham, L. and A.P. Summers (1999) Ventilation in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea, as indicated by sonomicrometry. Bulletin of the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory 38:97-99.

Leonard, J.B.K., A.P. Summers and T.J. Koob (1999) Routine and standard metabolic rate of embryonic little skate (Raja erinacea): the cost of active pumping. Journal of Experimental Zoology 283(1): 13-18.

*Liem, K.F. and A.P. Summers (1999). Gross anatomy and functional morphology of the muscles. In The Biology of Elasmobranch Fishes. Edited by W. Hamlett. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.

Richmond, A.M., T.F. Tyning and A.P. Summers (1999) Bufo americanus (American Toad) depth record. Herpetological Review 30(2):90-91.



Sharf, F., R. Yetter, A.P. Summers and F. Juanes (1998). Enhancing diet analyses of piscivorous fishes in the Northwest Atlantic through identification and reconstruction of original prey sizes from ingested remains. Fishery Bulletin 96(3):575-588.

Summers, A.P., K.F. Darouian, A.M. Richmond and E.L. Brainerd (1998). Kinematics of terrestrial and aquatic feeding in Terrapene carolina, with implications for the evolution of feeding in cryptodire turtles (REPTILIA: TESTUDINES). Journal of Experimental Zoology 281:280-287.

Summers, A.P., T.J. Koob and E.L. Brainerd (1998) Stingrays strut their stuff. Nature 395(6701): 450-451.



Motta, P.J., T.C. Tricas, R.E. Hueter and A.P. Summers (1997). Feeding mechanism and functional morphology of the jaws of the lemon shark, Negaprion brevirostris (Chondrichthyes, Carcharhinidae). Journal of Experimental Biology 200(21):2765-2780.

Summers, A.P. and J.C. O'Reilly (1997). Kinematics of locomotion in two species of caecilian, Typhlonectes natans and Dermophis mexicanus. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 121(1):65-76.



Delis, P.R. and A.P. Summers (1996). Hyla gratiosa (Barking Treefrog) reproduction. Herpetological Review 27(1):18-19.

Koob, T.J. and A.P. Summers (1996). On the hydrodynamic shape of Little Skate (Raja erinacea) egg capsules. Bulletin of the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory 35:108-111.