Slavic 351/551:


Introduction to the History of the Slavic Languages


Spring 2014



Instructor:                  Katarzyna Dziwirek                            Telephone:      543-7691

Office:                         Smith Hall M260                                e-mail:  

Office Hours:             Tue, Thu 2:30-3:20 and by appointment                    


Class website:   


The scope of the course:


1. Language evolution, Indo-Europeans: evidence for the Indo-European language family and its subgroups, what were the Indo-Europeans like, what was their language like, where did they come from, etc.

2. The place of Slavic within Indo-European (relationships to other subgroups)

3. The development of today's Slavic languages from the ancestral Common Slavic

4. The development of writing systems, national languages, and literatures

5. Principles of historical linguistics: sound change, analogy, semantic change, etc.

6. The relevance of historical linguistics: how linguistic evidence furthers our knowledge of human cognitive development, the culture of our ancestors, etc.


What you should know after this course:


· basic principles of language change

· main features of Slavic languages (e.g. be able to tell that English flow and Russian плaвaть, Polish pływać and Serbo-Croatian plivati are related, and why they are different)

· main features of the three groups and individual Slavic languages, so that you can look at a text from a Slavic language and be able to tell which language it is (for example, know why in Russian "star" is zvezda, while in Polish it is gwiazda, etc.)




Readings on electronic reserves, a class packet (available at Professional Copy, 4200 University Ave).


Requirements for Slavic 351:


 Readings and Class Participation: Follow the reading schedule closely and be prepared to discuss assigned texts in class. See handout on Reading and Class Discussion on the class website.

Presentation on Indo-Europeans on 4/22. Please pick your topic by 4/15= 25 points

ƒ Exercises: In class and take-home = 175 points total

Exams: 3 tests 3 x 100 = 300 points.

Total points=500


Requirements for Slavic 551:


- plus:

A final paper (7 or > pages) (= 50 points). You should discuss your topic with the instructor and by 5/13 send an email to the instructor with your topic and three references you plan to use. See the class website for hints on How to write a research paper, consult the Selected References file, and check out Past student paper topics. Total points=550



Slavic 351/551 Materials


There are no textbooks for this class, but we use chapters from several key books:


Aitchison, Jean. 1996. The Seeds of Speech: Language Origin and Evolution. Cambridge University Press.

Aitchison, Jean. 2001. Language Change: Progress or Decay? Cambridge University Press.

Campbell, Lyle. 2004. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Carlton, Terence R. 1990. Introduction to the Phonological History of the Slavic Languages. Columbus, OH: Slavica.

Hock, Hans Heinrich. 1986. Principles of Historical Linguistics. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Mallory, J. P. and D. Q. Adams. 2006. The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford University Press.

Townsend, Charles E. and Laura A. Janda. 1996. Common and comparative Slavic. Columbus, OH: Slavica.


351/551 Slavic Reading Schedule


All readings are on electronic reserves


Week 1: Introduction to historical linguistics, language evolution, classification of sounds


April 1

Introduction to course themes and goals

Video: Human Language Series, Part 3: Human Language Evolves

April 3

Lyle Campbell Historical Linguistics: An Introduction: Ch. 1 “Introduction”

H. Hock Principles of Historical Linguistics: Ch. 1 “Introduction”


Week 2: Language evolution and dispersion


April 8

Jean Aitchison The Seeds of Speech: Ch. 5 “The family tree”, Ch. 6 “A devious mind”, Ch. 8 “Small


Video: Nova: In Search of the First Language

April 10

Jean Aitchison The Seeds of Speech: Ch. 13 “The widening circle”

Merritt Ruhlen The Origin of Language: Ch. 1 “Language and History”, Ch. 3 “Controversy”


Week 3: Indo-Europeans: people and language


April 15

J. P. Mallory and D. Q. Adams The Oxford Introduction: Ch. 1 “Discovery”, Ch. 5 “Relationships”,

            Ch. 26 “Origins”

April 17

Philip Baldi Indo-European languages

J. P. Mallory and D. Q. Adams The Oxford Introduction: Ch. 3 “Reconstructing PIE”


Week 4: Indo-Europeans continued, sound change and the comparative method


April 22

PRESENTATIONS on Indo-European Language and Culture, please choose one of the sections below (Watkins and Fortson are on electronic reserves):


Calvert Watkins Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans

General Terms + Nature                                               xxiii-xxvii

People and Society                                                      xxvii-xxix

Economic Life                                                             xxix-xxxi

Ideology                                                                      xxxi-xxxiv

Archeology                                                                  xxxiv-xxxv


B. Fortson Indo-European Language and Culture

Society                                                                         17-19

Economy and Law                                                       19-22

Deities                                                                         22-24

Ritual                                                                           24-26

Myths                                                                          26-29

Poetics                                                                         29-34

Personal Names                                                           34-35

Archeology and Material Culture                                 35-39

Location of the Homeland                                           39-44


Mallory and Adams The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and The Proto-Indo-European World

Chapter 8 The Physical Word                                      120-131

Chapter 9: Indo-European Fauna                                 132-155

Chapter 10: Indo-European Flora                                156-172

Chapter 11: Anatomy                                                  173-201

Chapter 12: Family and Kinship                                  203-218

Chapter 13: Hearth and Home                                     219-229

Chapter 14: Clothing and Textiles                                230-238

Chapter 15: Material Culture                                        239-253

Chapter 16: Food and Drink                                        254-266

Chapter 17: Proto-Indo-European Society                   266-286

Chapter 18: Space and Time                                        287-306

Chapter 19: Number and Quantity                               307-320

Chapter 20: Mind, Emotions and Sense Perception      321-351

Chapter 21: Speech and Sound                                    352-367

Chapter 22: Activities                                                  368-408

Chapter 23: Religion                                                    408-414

Chapter 24: Grammatical Elements                              415-422

Chapter 25: Comparative Mythology                           423-441


April 24

H. Hock: Ch. 3 “Sound Change: the regularity hypothesis”

Jean Aitchison Language Change Ch. 11 “Doing what comes naturally” and Ch. 13 “The Mad Hatter’s



Week 5: The Comparative Method continued, Early Slavs, Common Slavic: relationship to PIE


April 29

J. P. Maher Common Slavic *slověne

Review for TEST 1

May 1

Townsend and Janda: Ch. II “Proto-Indo-European to Early Proto-Slavic”


TEST 1: Indo-European, phonetics, the comparative method, basic sound changes


Week 6: Common Slavic phonological developments: rising sonority and synharmony


May 6

Townsend and Janda: Ch. III “Proto-Slavic to Late Common Slavic: Rising Sonority”

May 8

Townsend and Janda: Ch. IV “Proto-Slavic to Late Common Slavic: Synharmony”


Week 7: Analogy, semantic change, morphology


May 13

H. Hock: Ch. 9 p. 167-179 on analogy

Jean Aitchison Language Change Ch. 12 “Repairing the patterns”  

Lyle Campbell Historical Linguistics: An Introduction: Ch. 9 “Semantic Change and Lexical Change”

(up to p. 265)

Jean Aitchison Words in the Mind Ch. 13 “Drifting Words: Layering and Meaning Change”

Geoffrey Nunberg Going Nucular “Caucasian Talk Circles”

May 15

Townsend and Janda: Ch. VIII “Evolution of Slavic Declension”


Week 8: Development of separate Slavic languages, writing systems


May 20

Carlton: Ch. I “The Slavic Languages Past and Present” 

Bernard Comrie Slavonic Languages

Townsend and Janda: Ch. X “Surveys of Five Modern Slavic Languages”

Review for TEST 2

May 22

Denise Schmandt-Besserat The Earliest Precursor of Writing

H.H. Hock and Brian Joseph Language History, Ch. 3 “Writing: Its history and its decipherment”


TEST 2: sound change, reconstruction, main sound changes in Common Slavic


Week 9: Slavic literacy and alphabets


May 27

Carlton: Ch. III “The Beginning of Slavic Literacy”


May 29:

Paul Cubberley “The Slavic Alphabets”

Review for TEST 3


Week 10: Reasons for language change, summary of course themes


June 3

Video: Do you speak American?

June 5

H. Hock: Ch. 20 “Linguistic change: Its nature and causes”

Jean Aitchison Language Change Ch. 10 “The reason why”

Jean Aitchison “Psycholinguistic Perspectives on Language Change”


TEST 3: features of the 3 Slavic groups and Slavic alphabets