Hist/SIS 225-Lecture Outline
Beyond the Great Wall in the 9th-11th Centuries:
The Tanguts (Xi Xia), Khitan (Qidan)/Liao, and Jin/Jurchen.

6-7th c. CE Tanguts in W. Sichuan (SW of X'ian).
2nd half 9th c. Tangut chief rewarded by T'ang emperor for helping defeat An Lu-Shan.
916-1125 Khitan (Qidan)/Liao Dynasty in Inner Mongolia/NE China.
982 Tangut leader Li Jiqian, with support of Qidan to the east, asserts independence from Chinese (Song Dynasty) suzerainty.
1002 Lingzhou (Ordos region, northern bend of Yellow River) made Tangut capital.
1006 Song recognize de facto Tangut independence.
1020 Tangut capital moved across Yellow River to Xingzhou.
1028-1039 Tangut conquests in Hexi Corridor, culminating with letter sent by Tangut ruler Yuanhao to Song proclaiming Tangut equality with Chinese and superiority to Qidans. Under Yuanhao, Tanguts begin to use own script and undertake first of a series of major projects to translate Buddhist scriptures and publish them in Tangut. Ca. 1035, Tanguts take control of Kara Khoto.
1044 Tangut-Song treaty, by which annual Song tribute to Tangut would consist of 152,000 bolts of silk, 72,000 taels of silver, 30,000 jin of tea, and 1000 bolts of cloth, although status of Tangut diminished by treaty terminology. De facto Tangut independence from both Song and Qidans.
1070s Tangut patronage of Buddhist caves at Yulin, east of Dunhuang.
1080s Tangut wars with Song leading to former's cession of Lanzhou.
1099 Song capture Qingtang (Xining).
1125 Qidan (Liao) state in NE China replaced by that of Jürchen (Jin Dynasty), which survives to destruction by Mongols in 1234.
1205 Temüjin attacks Hexi.
1206 Temüjin proclaimed Chingis Khan.
1209-1210 Tanguts recognize Mongol suzerainty.
1226-1227 Mongols destroy Tangut state.
Late 13th c. Marco Polo in Kara Khoto.
ca. 1380 Kara Khoto abandoned.
1908 Russian Capt. Pyotr Kozlov "discovers" Kara Khoto.

Excerpt from video: "The Dark Castle"