Connections of Naqshbandi descendents of Khwaja Ahrar with Mughals

[Based on Richard Foltz, Mughal India and Central Asia (Karachi etc., 1998), esp. ch. 5.]



Mughal connection


'Ubaydullah Ahrar (d.1490) Selected Muslim name for infant Babur. Babur later versified one of the Khwaja's works.


Khwaja Yahya

Muhammad Amin
Invited Babur to defend Samarkand vs. Uzbeks.
Accompanied Babur to Kabul and to India.


Khwaja Yusuf
Khwaja Khawind Mahmud

Khwaja 'Abd al-Shahid
Accompanied Babur to India.
Spent time at Mughal court at Agra after being in Iran and Kashgar; returned to Central Asia in reign of Babur's son Humayun.
20 years in Mughal service as a scholar of the "second class"; unsuccessfully interceded with Akbar to pardon Sharaf al-din Husayn; then returned to Samarkand where died in 1575.


Khwaja Mu'in
'Abd al-Kafi
Khwaja Qasim
Khwaja Yahya
Served Akbar.
In administration of Humayun.
In administration of Humayun.
Appointed by Akbar as Leader of the Holy Pilgrimage in 1578; accompanied Akbar's aunt and other Mughal women on hajj in 1580.


Sharaf al-din Husayn
'Abdullah Khan


Yadgar Khwaja
Barkhurdar Khwaja
Khwaja Zakariyya

Rebelled and executed by Akbar.
Served Akbar's son (the future Jahangir) as successful military leader, but then disgraced and blinded after latter's unsuccessful revolt vs. his father.
Served future Jahangir.
Served future Jahangir.
Apparently also involved with preceding but pardoned in 1605 on Jahangir's accession.