The Mongol Empire: A Brief Chronology

(For additional detail, see the chronology in David Morgan, The Mongols, pp. 219-221;
for dynastic tables of the Mongol rulers, ibid., pp. 222-225.)

Date

Event

1160s

Birth of TemŁjin, the future Chingis Khan.

1206

The kuriltai that recognized Chingis as supreme ruler.

1209

Uighurs (based in N. Tarim basin) submit, followed by Tanguts.

1215

Mongols take Beijing, the northern capital of Jurchen (Jin).

1219-1220

Mongols invade Central Asia, destroying state of Khwarezm Shah.

1223

First encounter of Mongols with Russian armies (guess who won).

1226-1227

Destruction of Tangut state.

1227

Chingis dies.

1235

Building of Karakorum on Orkhon R. as Mongol capital.

late 1230s

Mongol conquest of Eastern Europe.

1252

Empire-wide tax census.

1253-1255

William of Rubruck visits Mongol court in Karakorum.

1258

Conquest of Abbasid Caliphate.

1260s

Mongol capital moved to Beijing by Khubilai.

1261

Golden Horde and Genoa help Byzantines re-take Constantinople from Venetians/Latin crusaders.

1260s

Golden Horde treaty with Genoa; charter of privileges to Russian Church.

1270s-1290s

Marco Polo in China.
The several parts of Mongol Empire go their separate ways.

1279

Mongols finish off Sung Dynasty.

1313-1341

Reign of Khan ÷zbeg in Golden Horde.

1325-1354

Travels of Ibn Battuta including a stay at Khan ÷zbeg's court.

ca. 1340

Pegolotti writes his handbook.

2nd half 14th c.

Most parts of Mongol Empire dissolved.

1368

End of YŁan (Mongol) Dynasty in China.

1395

Tamerlane destroys cities of Golden Horde.

© 2000 Daniel C. Waugh