A Chronology of Horse, Camel and Wheel



ca. 8000 BCE

Modern speicies of camel devleops fully.

ca. 4000 BCE

Domestication of horse

4000-3000 BCE

Domestication of camel in SW Arabia or NE Africa

ca. 3500 BCE

Discovery of solid, heavy wheel in Near East

ca. 2400 BCE

Earliest image of camel in Iran

ca. 1800 BCE

Discovery of light, spoked wheel in Near East

ca 1500 BCE

Chariots, cheek-plates, bits.

ca. 1500-1000 BCE

Birth of true nomadism in Eurasia

ca. 1200 BCE

Chariots being used in China

ca. 1000 BCE

Biblical evidence of the value of camels

900-700 BCE

Birth of mounted archery, requiring use of saddle, stirrups and better bridles

800s BCE

Assyrian depictions of Bactrian camels

ca. 100 BCE

Chinese awareness of value of camel enhanced due to interactions with the Xiongnu nomads

ca 100 BCE-ca. 100 CE

Growth of importance of Bactrian camels in Iran, Central Asia, and China on account of opening of "Silk Road"

7th-9th c. CE

Famous T'ang glazed statues of camels

Sources:   Thomas J. Barfield, The Nomadic Alternative (Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1993).

                Richard Bulliet, The Camel and the Wheel (Cambridge, Mass., 1975).

                Laszlo Torday, Mounted Archers:  The Beginnings of Central Asian History (Edinburgh etc., 1997)..