Academic Literature

Below are published articles that contain information related to community-level indicators. Links to abstracts are also included. Topic areas:


GENERAL

Webb EJ, Campbell DT, Schwartz RD, Sechrest L. Unobtrusive Measure: Non-reactive research in the social sciences. Chicago: Rand McNally & Co.; 1966.

Sechrest L, Phillips M, Unobtrusive measures: an overview. In Sechrest L, ed. Unobtrusive Measurement Today. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1979:1-17.

Sechrest L, Belew J. (1983) Nonreactive measures of social attitudes. Applied Social Psychology Annual vol 4 23-63.

Cheadle A, Wagner E, Koepsell T, Kristal A, Patrick D. Environmental indicators: A tool for evaluating community-based health-promotion programs. Am J Prev Med 1992; 8(6):345-350. Abstract


GROCERY STORE MEASURES

Cheadle A, Psaty B, Wagner E, Diehr P, Koepsell T, Curry S, Von Korff M. Evaluating Community-based nutrition programs: Assessing the reliability of a survey of grocery store product displays. Am J Pub Health 1990, 80(6):709-711. Abstract

Cheadle A, Psaty B, Curry S, Wagner E, Diehr P, Koepsell T, Kristal A. Community-level comparisons between the grocery store environment and individual dietary practices. Prev Medicine 1991; 20:250-261. Abstract

Cheadle A, Psaty B, Curry S, Wagner E, Diehr P, Koepsell T, Kristal A. Can measures of the grocery store environment be used to track community-level dietary change? Prev Med 1993; 222:361-372. Abstract

Cheadle A, Psaty B, Diehr P, Koepsell T, Wagner E, Curry S, Kristal A. Evaluating community-based nutrition programs: Comparing grocery store and individual-level survey measures of program impact. Prev Med 1995; 24:71-79. Abstract


RESTAURANT MEASURES

Cheadle A, Psaty B, Curry S, Wagner E, Diehr P, Koepsell T, Kristal A, Patrick D. Community-level assessment of the health-promotion environment in restaurants. Am J Health Prom 1994; 9(2):88-91. Abstract


OTHER ARTICLES

Rogers T, Feighery EC, Tencati EM, Butler JL, Weiner L. Community mobilization to reduce point-of-purchase advertising of tobacco products. Health Educ Q 1995; 22(4):427-42. Abstract

Cheadle A, Beery W, Wagner E, Fawcett S, Green L, Moss D, Plough A, Wandersman A, Woods I. Conference report: Community-based health promotion: State of the art and recommendations for the future. Am J Prev Med, in press.

Cheadle A. After the trials: Using "prospective case studies" to evaluate community-based programs. Under review.

Koepsell TD, Wagner EH, Cheadle AD, Patrick DL, Martin DC, Diehr PH, Perrin EB, Kristal AR, Allan-Andrilla CH, Dey LJ. Selected methodological issues in evaluating community-based health promotion and disease prevention programs. Annu Rev Publ Health 1992; 13:31-57.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Abstracts

Cheadle A, Psaty B, Wagner E, Diehr P, Koepsell T, Curry S, Von Korff M. Evaluating Community-based nutrition programs: Assessing the reliability of a survey of grocery store product displays. Am J Pub Health 1990, 80(6):709-711.

A pilot test of a survey of grocery store product displays was conducted to measure the amount of health-education information provided and the proportion of the display devoted to "healthier" products. Inter-rater reliability ranged between 0.73 and 0.78 for the healthiness indices and between 0.30 and 0.67 for the health-education measures. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.44 to 1.0.


Cheadle A, Psaty B, Curry S, Wagner E, Diehr P, Koepsell T, Kristal A. Community-level comparisons between the grocery store environment and individual dietary practices. Prev Medicine 1991; 20:250-261.

This paper examines the relationship at the community level between individual dietary practice and the grocery store environment. Individual dietary practice was measured in 12 communities using a telephone survey to obtain self-reported diet. A protocol was developed to measure two aspects of the grocery store environment in these same 12 communities: the relative availability of healthful (low-fat and high-fiber) products, and the amount of health-education information provided. Comparisons were made between individual and store-level measures at two levels of geographic aggregation: community (typically a county) and zip code within community (n=34). We found positive and statistically significant correlations at both the community and zip code level between the availability of healthful products in stores and the reported healthfulness of individual diets. Positive correlations were also found between measures of the amount of health-education material provided by stores and the healthfulness of individual diets, but these correlations did not reach statistical significance. The results provide support for including measures of the grocery store environment as part a community-level assessment of dietary behavior.


Cheadle A, Wagner E, Koepsell T, Kristal A, Patrick D. Environmental indicators: A tool for evaluating community-based health-promotion programs. Am J Prev Med 1992; 8(6):345-350.

This paper proposes using a class of community-level measures-- "environmental indicators"--as part of the evaluation of community based health promotion programs. Community-level measures of health-related behavior are divided into three conceptual categories. The first two categories are comprised of statistical aggregates (e.g. means, sums, proportions) of measurements made on individuals, distinguished by whether individual-level covariates are also available. Individual-disaggregated measures include covariates (e.g. a comprehensive survey of health-risk behavior, including demographic information); individual-aggregated measures do not (e.g. sales data). The main focus of this paper is on the third category, environmental indicators, which are derived from observations of the community environment. Environmental indicators measure aspects of the physical, legal, social and economic environment in a community that are reflective of, and likely to influence the attitudes and behavior of individual community members. They also measure an important intermediate step in community-based health-promotion interventions, namely environmental factors that programs target to modify individual attitudes and behavior. Examples of environmental indicators are presented for tobacco use and diet.


Cheadle A, Psaty B, Curry S, Wagner E, Diehr P, Koepsell T, Kristal A. Can measures of the grocery store environment be used to track community-level dietary change? Prev Med 1993; 222:361-372.

This paper examines whether an in-store unobtrusive survey of grocery store product displays can be used to track community-level dietary behavior. The survey was conducted in 12 Western communities at two points in time to measure two aspects of the grocery store environment: (1) the relative availability of low-fat and high-fiber products; and (2) the amount of store-provided health-education information. Self-reported dietary intake of residents was obtained in the same 12 communities using a telephone survey. We compared the individual and store-level measures both cross-sectionally and over time. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between the availability of healthful products in stores and the reported healthfulness of individual diets in cross-sectional analyses; but correlations between changes over time in the two measures were weaker and not statistically significant. The variance of the grocery store measures was nonetheless sufficiently small so that a grocery store survey of 15 stores in each of 8 communities (n=120 surveys) had comparable power to a telephone survey of 200 individuals/community (n=1600) surveys, at a fraction of the cost. Although the results provide further validation of cross-sectional measures of the grocery store environment, additional efforts are required to establish the validity of the grocery store survey as a method of measuring dietary change.


Cheadle A, Psaty B, Curry S, Wagner E, Diehr P, Koepsell T, Kristal A, Patrick D. Community-level assessment of the health-promotion environment in restaurants. Am J Health Prom 1994; 9(2):88-91.

This paper assesses the validity of a telephone survey of the restaurant health-promotion environment, including non-smoking seating availability and the designation of menu items as low in fat. Validity was assessed by comparing survey results with direct observation in 54 Seattle restaurants. In addition, the amount of non-smoking seating, as measured by the survey, was compared with the restrictiveness of no-smoking ordinance requirements in Seattle and 12 California communities participating in the Kaiser Family Foundation Community Health Promotion Grants Program. We found close agreement between the proportion of seats in non-smoking sections as reported by the restaurant telephone survey and direct observation (r=.82, p<.01); however, restaurant personnel over-reported the extent to which menu items were designated as low in fat. As expected, communities with more restrictive no-smoking ordinances had a higher proportion of restaurants reporting designated non-smoking sections and a greater percent of seats available in non-smoking sections. The results suggest that a brief telephone survey of restaurant personnel may be able to assess accurately non-smoking seating availability but not the extent to which restaurants are calling attention to low-fat menu items.


Cheadle A, Psaty B, Diehr P, Koepsell T, Wagner E, Curry S, Kristal A. Evaluating community-based nutrition programs: Comparing grocery store and individual-level survey measures of program impact. Prev Med 1995; 24:71-79.

This paper examines whether an "environmental indicator"--a survey of grocery store product displays--can provide a realistic alternative to individual-level telephone surveys for the evaluation of community-based nutrition programs. Telephone and grocery store measures were used separately to evaluate 3 community-level dietary interventions that were part of the Kaiser Family Foundation Community Health Promotion Grants Program (CHPGP). Both surveys were conducted in the 3 intervention and 7 control communities at three points in time: 1988, 1990 and 1992. The grocery-store survey recorded the relative availability of low-fat and high-fiber products and the amount of store-provided health-education information. Self-reported dietary intake of residents was obtained in the same communities using a telephone survey. In the one community where the intervention seemed to have contributed to reduced fat consumption, the grocery store and telephone surveys showed very similar relative changes for the only variable they had in common, low-fat milk consumption. In another community, both survey approaches indicated that there was no change or perhaps a slight worsening in the treatment relative to the controls. The third community produced the only contradictory results: the telephone survey suggested no change or perhaps a worsening, while the grocery store results were generally positive, though not statistically significant. These results, combined with the much lower cost of the grocery store survey, justify further pursuit of environmental indicators as an evaluation tool.


Cheadle A, Beery W, Wagner E, Fawcett S, Green L, Moss D, Plough A, Wandersman A, Woods I. Conference report: Community-based health promotion: State of the art and recommendations for the future. Am J Prev Med, in press.


Cheadle A. After the trials: Using "prospective case studies" to evaluate community-based programs. Under review.


Koepsell TD, Wagner EH, Cheadle AD, Patrick DL, Martin DC, Diehr PH, Perrin EB, Kristal AR, Allan-Andrilla CH, Dey LJ. Selected methodological issues in evaluating community-based health promotion and disease prevention programs. Annu Rev Publ Health 1992; 13:31-57.


Rogers T, Feighery EC, Tencati EM, Butler JL, Weiner L. Community mobilization to reduce point-of-purchase advertising of tobacco products. Health Educ Q 1995; 22(4):427-42.

This project was designed to address the problem of point-of-purchase tobacco advertising through media advocacy and community mobilization. Precampaign assessment revealed a considerable amount and density of tobacco advertising and promotions in more than 100 stores sampled in San Jose, California. After sharing the results with community activists and other residents, a community mobilization campaign was instigated to capitalize on an existing sign control ordinance that limits store window coverage and sidewalk signs. Through presentations and media advocacy efforts, community residents were mobilized to file complaints with the city's code enforcement office when neighborhood stores were shown to be noncompliant with ordinance provisions. Relative to the baseline, significant reductions in campaign-related tobacco advertising variables were seen in the San Jose stores after the sign law campaign. No changes were seen in four smaller reference communities. Differences were noted between stores close to and farther away from schools. These results demonstrate that mobilization of community residents to activate enforcement of laws originally designed for other purposes can have a significant impact on one aspect of tobacco point-of-purchase advertising.


Sechrest L, Phillips M, Unobtrusive measures: an overview. In Sechrest L, ed. Unobtrusive Measurement Today. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1979:1-17.


Sechrest L, Belew J. (1983) Nonreactive measures of social attitudes. Applied Social Psychology Annual vol 4 23-63.


Webb EJ, Campbell DT, Schwartz RD, Sechrest L. Unobtrusive Measure: Non-reactive research in the social sciences. Chicago: Rand McNally & Co.; 1966.